Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 3–54 | Cite as

Domain-Generality and Domain-Specificity in Personal Epistemology Research: Philosophical and Empirical Reflections in the Development of a Theoretical Framework

  • Krista R. Muis
  • Lisa D. Bendixen
  • Florian C. Haerle
Original Article


This review synthesizes and critically examines 19 empirical studies that have addressed the domain-specificity/domain-generality issue in personal epistemology. We present an overview of traditional and more contemporary epistemological stances from philosophical perspectives to offer another basis from which to examine this issue. Explicit examples of academic domains are described and epistemological comparisons are made based on our synthesized definition. Given the epistemological similarities and differences across domains that we identified from empirical and philosophical considerations, we propose that beliefs are both domain general and domain specific. Accordingly, we present a theoretical framework of personal epistemology that incorporates both positions and hypothesize how the belief systems might interact in terms of the development of personal epistemology and relations to various facets of cognition, motivation, and achievement. The article ends with a discussion of educational implications.


Personal epistemology Domain-specificity/domain-generality Philosophy Development 


  1. Alexander, P. A. (1992). Domain knowledge: Evolving themes and emerging concerns. Educational Psychologist 27(1), 33–51.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, P. A., & Judy, J. E. (1988). The interaction of domain-specific knowledge in academic performance. Review of Educational Research, 58, 375–404.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, P. A., & Murphy, P. K. (1998). The research base for APA's learner-centered psychological principles. In Lambert, N. M., and McCombs, B. L. (eds.), How Students Learn: Reforming Schools Through Learner-Centered Education, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, P. A., Schallert, D. L., & Hare, V. C. (1991). Coming to terms: How researchers in learning and literacy talk about knowledge. Review of Educational Research, 61(3), 315–343.Google Scholar
  5. Arner, D. G. (1972). Perception, Reason, and Knowledge: An Introduction to Epistemology, Scott, Foresman, Glenview, IL.Google Scholar
  6. Astington, J. W., Pelletier, J., & Homer, B. (2002). Theory of mind and epistemological development: The relation between children's second-order false-belief understanding and their ability to reason about evidence. New Ideas in Psychology, 20(2–3), 131–144.Google Scholar
  7. Audi, R. (1999). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd Ed.), Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control, W. H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Bartsch, K. (2002). The role of experience in children's developing folk epistemology: Review and analysis from the theory–theory perspective. New Ideas in Psychology, 20(2–3), 145–161.Google Scholar
  10. Bauersfeld, H. (1988). Interaction, construction, and knowledge: Alternative perspectives for mathematics education. In Cooney, T., and Grouws, D. (eds.), Effective Mathematics Teaching, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and Erlbaum Associates, Reston, VA, pp. 27–46.Google Scholar
  11. Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2004). A constructivist conceptualization of epistemological reflection. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 31–42.Google Scholar
  12. Belenky, M., Clinchy, B., Goldberger, N., & Tarule, J. (1986). Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Bendixen, L. D. (2002). A process model of epistemic belief change. In Hofer, B. K., and Pintrich, P. R. (eds.), Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 191–208.Google Scholar
  14. Bendixen, L. D., & Rule, D. C. (2004). An integrative approach to personal epistemology: A guiding model. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 69–80.Google Scholar
  15. Benjamin, M., & Echeverria, E. (1992). Knowledge in the classroom. In Sharp, A., and Reed, R. (eds.), Studies in Philosophy for Children, Templeton University Press, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 64–78.Google Scholar
  16. Biglan, A. (1973a). The characteristics of subject matter in different academic areas. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(3), 195–203.Google Scholar
  17. Biglan, A. (1973b). Relationships between subject matter characteristics and the structure and output of university departments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(3), 204–213.Google Scholar
  18. Braxton, J. M., & Hargens, L. L. (1996). Variation in academic disciplines: Analytical frameworks and research. In Smart, J. S. (ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, Vol. 11, Agathon, New York, pp. 1–46.Google Scholar
  19. Buehl, M. M., & Alexander, P. A. (2001). Beliefs about academic knowledge. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 385–417.Google Scholar
  20. Buehl, M. M., & Alexander, P. A. (2004a). Modeling the Relations Between Students’ Domain-Specific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation, and Task Performance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  21. Buehl, M. M., & Alexander, P. A. (2004b). Motivation and Performance Differences Among Domain-Specific Epistemological Beliefs Profiles. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, HI.Google Scholar
  22. Buehl, M. M., Alexander, P. A., & Murphy, P. K. (2002). Beliefs about schooled knowledge: Domain specific or domain general? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 415–449.Google Scholar
  23. Burbules, N. C., & Linn, M. C. (1991). Science education and philosophy of science: Congruence or contradiction? International Journal of Science Education, 13(3), 227–241.Google Scholar
  24. Burr, J. E., & Hofer, B. K. (2002). Personal epistemology and theory of mind: Deciphering young children's beliefs about knowledge and knowing. New Ideas in Psychology, 20, 199–224.Google Scholar
  25. Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural Equation Modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
  26. Chandler, M. J., Hallett, D., & Sokol, B. W. (2002). Competing claims about competing knowledge claims. In Hofer, B. K., and Pintrich, P. R. (eds.), Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 145–168.Google Scholar
  27. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233–255.Google Scholar
  28. Chi, M., Feltovich, P., & Glaser, R. (1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, 121–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cobb, P. (1989). Experiential, cognitive, and anthropological perspectives in mathematics education. For the Learning of Mathematics, 9, 32–42.Google Scholar
  30. Cobb, P. (1996). Where is the mind? A coordination of sociocultural and cognitive constructivist perspectives. In Fosnot, C. T. (ed.), Constructivism: Theory, Perspectives, and Practice, Teachers College Press, New York, pp. 34–52.Google Scholar
  31. Commons, M. L. (2004). The state of the art on Perry and epistemological development? An Introduction. Journal of Adult Development, 11, 59–60.Google Scholar
  32. Cunningham, J. W., & Fitzgerald, J. (1996). Epistemology and reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 31(1), 36–60.Google Scholar
  33. De Corte, E., & Op ‘t Eynde, P. (2003). Students’ Mathematics-Related Beliefs: Where do Epistemological Beliefs Fit in? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  34. DeVries, W. A. (1991). Reality, Knowledge, and the Good Life: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy, St. Martin’s, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Dole, J. A., & Sinatra, G. M. (1998). Reconceptualizing change in the cognitive construction of knowledge. Educational Psychologist, 33(2/3), 109–128.Google Scholar
  36. Donald, J. G. (1990). University professors' views of knowledge and validation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(2), 242–249.Google Scholar
  37. Ennis, R. J., & Millman, J. (1971). Cornell Critical Thinking Test Manual, Critical Thinking Project, The University of Illinois, Urbana.Google Scholar
  38. Estes, D., Chandler, M., Horvath, K. J., & Backus, D. W. (2003). American and British college students’ epistemological beliefs about research on psychological and biological development. Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 625–642.Google Scholar
  39. Everson, S. (1990). Epistemology. (Companions to Ancient Thought: Vol. 1), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  40. Fink, L. (2001). New tidings for history education, or lessons we should have learned by now. The History Teacher, 34(2), 235–242.Google Scholar
  41. Fischer, K. W. (1980). A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. Psychological Review, 87, 477–531.Google Scholar
  42. Frederiksen, N. (1984). Implications of cognitive theory for instruction in problem solving. Review of Educational Research, 54, 636–407.Google Scholar
  43. Gay, G. (1978). Viewing the pluralistic classroom as a cultural microcosm. Educational Research Quarterly, 2(4), 45–49.Google Scholar
  44. Glaser, R., & Chi, M. T. H. (1988). Introduction: What is it to be an expert? In Chi, M. T. H., Glaser, R., & Farr, M. J. (eds.), The Nature of Expertise, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. xv–xxiix.Google Scholar
  45. Glaser, R., Lesgold, A., & Lajoie, S. (1987). Toward a cognitive theory for the measurement of achievement. In Ronning, R. R., Glover, J. A., Conoley, J. C., & Whitt, J. C. (eds.), The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 41–85.Google Scholar
  46. Gopnick, A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1997). Words, Thoughts, and Theories, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  47. Haerle, F. C. (2004). Epistemological beliefs of primary school students and their teachers and their effects on conceptual change. In Vosniadou, S., Stathopoulou, C., Vamvakoussi, X., & Mamalougos, N. (eds.), Conceptual Change: Philosophical, Historical, Psychological and Educational Approaches, Gutenberg, Athens, pp. 66–70.Google Scholar
  48. Haerle, F. C. (2005a). Discussant. In Bendixen, L. D. (Chair), Innovations in Measuring Personal Epistemology, Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  49. Haerle, F. C. (2005b). Personal Epistemology: How do Elementary School Students Perceive Their World of Knowledge and Knowing? Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  50. Haerle, F. C. (2005c). Personal Epistemologies of Fourth-Graders: Their Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg, Germany.Google Scholar
  51. Hammer, D. H., & Elby, A. (2002). On the form of personal epistemology. In Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (eds.), Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 169–190.Google Scholar
  52. Hofer, B. K. (2000). Dimensionality and disciplinary differences in personal epistemology. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 378–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hofer, B. K. (2001). Personal epistemology research: Implications for learning and teaching. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 353–383.Google Scholar
  54. Hofer, B. K. (2004a). Epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process: Thinking aloud during online searching. Educational Psychologist, 39, 43–55.Google Scholar
  55. Hofer, B. K. (2004b). Exploring the dimensions of personal epistemology in differing classroom contexts: Student interpretations during their first year of college. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 129–163.Google Scholar
  56. Hofer, B. K. (2005). Developing Culturally Inclusive Models of Epistemic Beliefs: A Roundtable Discussion, Paper resented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  57. Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research, 67, 88–140.Google Scholar
  58. Honderich, T. (ed.). (1995). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Inagaki, K. (1997). Emerging distinctions between naïve psychology and naïve biology. In Wellman, H. M., and Inagaki, K. (eds.), New Directions for Child Development: No. 75. The Emergence of Core Domains of Thought, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 27–44.Google Scholar
  60. Jehng, J. J., Johnson, S. D., & Anderson, R. C. (1993). Schooling and students’ epistemological beliefs about learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 23–35.Google Scholar
  61. Kant, I. E. (1998). Critique of Pure Reason (P. Guyer and A. W. Wood, Trans.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  62. Kardash, C. A. M., & Scholes, R. J. (1996). Effects of preexisting beliefs, epistemological beliefs, and need for cognition on interpretation of controversial issues. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 260–271.Google Scholar
  63. King, K. S., & Kitchener, K. S. (2002). The reflective judgment model: Twenty years of research on epistemic cognition. In Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (eds.), Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 37–61.Google Scholar
  64. King, P., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing Reflective Judgment: Understanding and Promoting Intellectual Growth and Critical Thinking in Adolescents and Adults, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  65. King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (2004). Reflective judgment: Theory and research on the development of epistemic assumptions. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 5–18.Google Scholar
  66. King, P. M., Wood, P. K., & Mines, R. A. (1990). Critical thinking among college and graduate students. The Review of Higher Education, 13, 167–186.Google Scholar
  67. Kitchener, K. S. (2002). Skills, tasks, and definitions: Discrepancies in the understanding and data on the development of folk epistemology. New Ideas in Psychology, 20(2–3), 309–328.Google Scholar
  68. Kitchener, K. S., & King, P. M. (1981). Reflective judgment: Concepts of justification and their relationship to age and education. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2, 89–116.Google Scholar
  69. Kuhn, D., Cheney, R., & Weinstock, M. (2000). The development of epistemological understanding. Cognitive Development, 15, 309–328.Google Scholar
  70. Kuhn, D., & Weinstock, M. (2002). What is epistemological thinking and why does it matter? In Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (eds.), Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 121–144.Google Scholar
  71. Kuhn, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  72. Lee, K., & Homer, B. (1999). Children as folk psychologists: The developing understanding of the mind. In Slater, A., & Muir, D., et al. (eds.), The Blackwell Reader in Development Psychology, Blackwell, Malder, MA, pp. 228–252.Google Scholar
  73. Lonka, K., & Linblom-Ylänne, S. (1996). Epistemologies, conceptions of learning, and study practices in medicine and psychology. Higher Education, 31, 5–24.Google Scholar
  74. Louca, L., Elby, A., Hammer, D., & Kagey, T. (2004). Epistemological resources: Applying a new epistemological framework to science instruction. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 57–68.Google Scholar
  75. Lundberg, G. (1933). Is sociology too scientific? Sociologus, 9, 298–322.Google Scholar
  76. Mason, L. (2003). General, Domain-Specific and Contextualized Epistemological Thinking: Relationships with Educational Level and Curriculum, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  77. Mori, Y. (1999). Epistemological beliefs and language learning beliefs: What do language learners believe about their learning? Language Learning, 49(3), 377–415.Google Scholar
  78. Mos, L. P., Wardell, D., & Royce, J. R. (1974). A factor analysis of some measures of cognitive style. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 9, 47–58.Google Scholar
  79. Muis, K. R. (2004). Personal epistemology and mathematics: A critical review and synthesis of research. Review of Educational Research, 74, 317–377.Google Scholar
  80. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1980). An Agenda for Action: Recommendations for School Mathematics of the 1980s, Author, Reston, VA.Google Scholar
  81. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, Author, Reston, VA.Google Scholar
  82. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1993). Assessment Standards for School Mathematics, Author, Reston, VA.Google Scholar
  83. National Research Council (1989). Everybody Counts: A Report to the Nation on the Failure of Mathematics Education, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  84. Op ‘t Eynde, P., & De Corte, E. (2003). Students’ Mathematics-Related Belief Systems: Design and Analysis of a Questionnaire, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  85. Osborne, J. W. (2003). Effect sizes and the disattenuation of correlation and regression coefficients: Lessons from educational psychology. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 8(11).Google Scholar
  86. Packer, M. J., & Addison, R. B. (eds.). (1989). Entering the Circle: Hermeneutic Investigation in Psychology, State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.Google Scholar
  87. Pai, Y. (1990). Cultural Foundations of Education, Merrill, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  88. Paris, S. G., Lipson, M. Y., & Wixson, K. K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 293–316.Google Scholar
  89. Paulsen, M. B., & Wells, C. T. (1998). Domain differences in the epistemological beliefs of college students. Research in Higher Education, 39, 365–384.Google Scholar
  90. Perry, W. G. Jr. (1970). Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Future challenges and directions for theory and research on personal epistemology. In Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (eds.), Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 389–414.Google Scholar
  92. Pintrich, P. R., Marx, R. W., & Boyle, R. A. (1993). Beyond cold conceptual change: The role of motivational beliefs and classroom contextual factors in the process of conceptual change. Review of Educational Research, 63, 167–199.Google Scholar
  93. Plato. (1993). Republic/Plato (R. Waterfield, Trans.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. Google Scholar
  94. Qian, G., and Alvermann, D. (1995). Role of epistemological beliefs and learned helplessness in secondary school students’ learning science concepts from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 282–292.Google Scholar
  95. Rotman, B. (1993). Ad Infinitum: The Ghost in Turing's Machine—Taking the God Out of Mathematics and Putting the Body Back in, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  96. Royce, J. R. (1959). The search for meaning. American Scientist, 47, 515–535.Google Scholar
  97. Royce, J. R. (1967). Metaphoric knowledge and humanistic psychology. In Bugental, J. T. F. (ed.), Challenges of Humanistic Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 21–28.Google Scholar
  98. Royce, J. R. (1974). Cognition and knowledge: Psychological epistemology. In Carterette, E. C., & Friedman, M. F. (eds.), Handbook of Perception. Historical and Philosophical Roots to Perception, Vol. 1, Academic, New York, pp. 149–176.Google Scholar
  99. Royce, J. R. (1978). Three ways of knowing and the scientific world view. Methodology and Science, 11, 146–164.Google Scholar
  100. Royce, J. R. (1983). Psychological epistemology. Methodology and Science, 16, 164–180.Google Scholar
  101. Royce, J. R., Coward, H., Egan, E., Kessel, F., & Mos, L. (1978). Psychological epistemology: A critical review of the empirical literature and the theoretical issues. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 97, 265–353.Google Scholar
  102. Royce, J. R., & Mos, L. P. (1980). Manual: Psycho-Epistemological Profile, Center for advanced study in theoretical psychology, University of Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar
  103. Royce, J. R., & Rozeboom, W. W. (1972). The Psychology of Knowing, Gordon and Breach, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Royce, J. R., & Smith, W. A. S. (1964). A note of the development of the Psycho-epistemological Profile (PEP). Psychological Reports, 14, 297–298.Google Scholar
  105. Ryan, M. P. (1984). Monitoring text comprehension: Individual differences in epistemological standards. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 248–258.Google Scholar
  106. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1985). Mathematical Problem Solving, Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  107. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1987). What's all the fuss about metacognition? In Schoenfeld, A. H. (ed.), Cognitive Science and Mathematics Education, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 189–215.Google Scholar
  108. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1989). Exploration of students’ mathematical beliefs and behavior. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20, 338–355.Google Scholar
  109. Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 498–504.Google Scholar
  110. Schommer, M. (1993). Epistemological development and academic performance among secondary students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 406–411.Google Scholar
  111. Schommer, M. (1994). Synthesizing epistemological belief research: Tentative understandings and provocative confusions. Educational Psychology Review, 6, 293–319.Google Scholar
  112. Schommer, M., Crouse, A., & Rhodes, N. (1992). Epistemological beliefs and mathematical text comprehension: Believing it is simple does not make it so. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 435–443.Google Scholar
  113. Schommer, M., & Walker, K. (1995). Are epistemological beliefs similar across domains? Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 424–432.Google Scholar
  114. Schommer-Aikins, M. (2004). Explaining the epistemological belief system: Introducing the embedded systemic model and coordinated research approach. Educational Psychologist, 39, 19–29.Google Scholar
  115. Schommer-Aikins, M., Duell, O. K., & Barker, S. (2003). Epistemological beliefs across domains using Biglan's classification of academic disciplines. Research in Higher Education, 44, 347–366.Google Scholar
  116. Schraw, G. (2001). Current themes and future directions in epistemological research: A commentary. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 451–465.Google Scholar
  117. Schraw, G., & Olafson, L. (2003). Teacher's epistemological worldviews and educational practices. Issues in Education, 8,(2), 99–148.Google Scholar
  118. Smith, W. A. S., Royce, J. R., Ayers, D., & Jones, B. (1967). Development of an inventory to measure ways of knowing. Psychological Reports, 21, 529–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Songer, N. B. (1989). Promoting Integration of Instructed and Natural World Knowledge in Thermodynamics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  120. Spiro, R. J. (1989). Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire, University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading, Champagne, IL. [Unpublished raw data]Google Scholar
  121. Spiro, R. J., & Jehng, J. C. (1990). Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. In Nix, D., & Spiro, R. J. (eds.), Cognition, Education, and Multimedia: Explorations in High Technology, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 163–205.Google Scholar
  122. Stearns, P. N., Seixas, P., & Wineburg, S. S. (eds.). (2000). Knowing, Teaching and Learning History, New York University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  123. Sternberg, R. J. (1989). Domain-generality versus domain-specificity: The life and impending death of a false dichotomy. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 35, 115–130.Google Scholar
  124. Stodolsky, S. S., Salk, S., & Glaessner, B. (1991). Student views about learning math and social studies. American Educational Research Journal, 28, 89–116.Google Scholar
  125. Tarnas, R. (1991). The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped our World View, Ballentine Books, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Taylor, C. C. W. (1990). Aristotle's epistemology. In Everson, S. (ed.), Epistemology. (Companions to Ancient Thought: Vol. 1), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 116–142.Google Scholar
  127. Triadafillidis, T. A. (1998). Dominant epistemologies in mathematics education. Learning of Mathematics, 18, 21–27.Google Scholar
  128. Trigg, R. (2002). Philosophy Matters, Blackwell, Malden, MA.Google Scholar
  129. Vico, G. (1728). On Humanistic Education: Six Inaugural Orations, 1699–1707, (A. Shippee, Trans., 1993), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  130. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  131. Walton, M. D. (2000). Say it's a lie or I’ll punch you: Naïve epistemology in classroom conflict episodes. Discourse Processes, 29(2), 113–136.Google Scholar
  132. Watson, G., & Glaser, E. M. (1964). Watson–Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Manual, Harcourt, Brace and World, New York.Google Scholar
  133. Wellman, H. M. (1990). The Child's Theory of Mind, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  134. Wellman, H. M., & Gelman, S. A. (1998). Knowledge acquisition in foundational domains. In Damon, W. (Series ed.), and Kuhn, D., & Siegler, R. (Vol. eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Cognition, Perception, and Language (Vol. 2, 5th ed.), Wiley, New York, pp. 523–573.Google Scholar
  135. Wellman, H. M., Hickling, A. K., & Schult, C. A. (1997). Young children's psychological, physical, and biological explanations. In Wellman, M. H., & Inagaki, K. (eds.), New Directions for Child Development: No. 75. The Emergence of Core Domains of Thought, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 7–25.Google Scholar
  136. Wineburg, S. S. (1991). On the reading of historical texts: Notes on the breach between school and academy. American Educational Research Journal, 28(3), 495–519.Google Scholar
  137. Wineburg, S. S., & Wilson, S. M. (1991). Subject matter knowledge in the teaching of history. In Brophy, J. E. (ed.), Advances in Research on Teacher Education, JAI, Greenwhich, CN, pp. 303–345.Google Scholar
  138. Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2000). Measuring self-regulated learning. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P. R., & Zeidner, M. (eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation, Academic, Orlando, FL, pp. 531–566.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krista R. Muis
    • 1
    • 3
  • Lisa D. Bendixen
    • 1
  • Florian C. Haerle
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of Nevada, Las VegasLas VegasUSA
  2. 2.Carl von Ossietzky UniversityOldenburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of Nevada, Las VegasLas VegasUSA

Personalised recommendations