Advertisement

Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 191–262 | Cite as

WICS: A Model of Positive Educational Leadership Comprising Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity Synthesized

  • Robert J. Sternberg
Article

Abstract

Who are the people who become positive educational leaders? This essay presents WICS as a model of positive educational leadership. WICS stands for wisdom, intelligence, creativity, synthesized. Each of these elements is asserted to constitute one of the elements of educational leadership. Regrettably, our society is organized around a closed system of selection and talent development that emphasizes intelligence in a narrowly defined way that sometimes ignores its synthesis with creativity and wisdom.

Keywords

leadership WICS wisdom intelligence creativity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adelson, B. (1984). When novices surpass experts: The difficulty of a task may increase with expertise. J. Exp. Psychol.: Learn. Memory Cogn. 10(3): 483–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amabile, T. M. (1983). The Social Psychology of Creativity, Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in Context, Westview, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  4. Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T., and Sternberg, R. J. (2004a). Leadership: Past, present, and future. In Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T., and Sternberg, R. J. (eds.), The Nature of Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3–15.Google Scholar
  5. Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T., and Sternberg, R. J. (eds.). (2004b). The Nature of Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  6. Ayman, R. (2004). Situational and contingency approaches to leadership. In Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T., and Sternberg, R. J. (eds.), The Nature of Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 148–170.Google Scholar
  7. Baehr, M. E. (1992). Predicting Success in Higher Level Positions: A Guide to the System for Testing and Evaluation of Potential, Quorum, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Bales, R. F. (1951). Interaction process analysis: A method for the study of small groups. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
  9. Baltes, P. B., Smith, J., and Staudinger, U. M. (1992). Wisdom and successful aging. In Sonderegger, T. B. (ed.), Psychology and Aging, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, pp. 123–167.Google Scholar
  10. Baltes, P. B., and Staudinger, U. M. (1993). The search for a psychology of wisdom. Curr. Direct. Psychol. Sci. 2: 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baltes, P. B., and Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. Am. Psychol. 55: 122–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Baltes, P. B., Staudinger, U. M., Maercker, A., and Smith, J. (1995). People nominated as wise: A comparative study of wisdom-related knowledge. Psychol. Aging 10: 155–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control, Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Barnes, M. L., and Sternberg, R. J. (1989). Social intelligence and decoding of nonverbal cues. Intelligence 13: 263–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barron, F., and Harrington, D. M. (1981). Creativity, intelligence, and personality. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 32: 439–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Bass, B. M. (1998). Transformational Leadership: Industrial, Military, and Educational Impact, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
  18. Bass, B. M. (2002). Cognitive, social, and emotional intelligence of transformational leaders. In Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E., and Pirozzolo, F. J. (eds.), Multiple Intelligences and Leadership, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 105–118.Google Scholar
  19. Bass, B. M., and Avolio, B. J. (eds.). (1994). Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  20. Bass, B. M., and Avolio, B. J. (1995). MLQ Multifoactor Leadership Questionnaire for Research: Premission Set, Mindgarden, Redwood City, CA.Google Scholar
  21. Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., and Atwater, L. (1996). The transformational and transactional leadership of men and women. Int. Rev. Appl. Psychol. 45: 5–34.Google Scholar
  22. Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and Nature, Wildwood House, London.Google Scholar
  23. Bird, C. (1940). Social Psychology, Appleton-Century, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Blake, R. R., and Mouton, J. S. (1964). The Managerial Grid, Gulf Publishing Group, Houston.Google Scholar
  25. Boring, E. G. (1923, June 6). Intelligence as the tests test it. New Republic, 35–37.Google Scholar
  26. Bowers, K. S., Regehr, G., Balthazard, C., and Parker, K. (1990). Intuition in the context of discovery. Cogn. Psychol. 22: 72–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bransford, J. D., and Stein, B. (1984). The IDEAL Problem Solver, Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Brody, N. (2003a). Construct validation of the Sternberg Triarchic abilities test: Comment and reanalysis. Intelligence 31(4): 319–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brody, N. (2003b). What Sternberg should have concluded. Intelligence 31(4): 339–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown, A. L., and Ferrara, R. A. (1985). Diagnosing zones of proximal development. In Wertsch, J. V. (ed.). Culture, Communication, and Cognition: Vygotskian Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp. 273–305.Google Scholar
  31. Budoff, M. (1968). Learning potential as a supplementary assessment procedure. In Hellmuth, J. (ed.), Learning Disorders, Vol. 3, Special Child, Seattle, WA, pp. 295–343.Google Scholar
  32. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership, Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Campbell, D. T. (1960). Blind variation and selective retention in creative thought and other knowledge processes. Psychol. Rev. 67: 380–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor-Analytic Studies, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D., and Salovey, P. (2002). Emotional intelligence and emotional leadership. In Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E., and Pirozzolo, F. J. (eds.), Multiple Intelligences and Leadership, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 55–74.Google Scholar
  36. Cattell, R. B. (1971). Abilities: Their Structure, Growth and Action, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  37. Cattell, R. B., and Cattell, H. E. P. (1973). Measuring Intelligence with the Culture Fair Tests, Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  38. Ceci, S. J. (1996). On Intelligence, revised and expanded edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  39. Clement, J. (1989). Learning via model construction and criticism: Protocol evidence on sources of creativity in science. In Glover, G., Ronning, R., and Reynolds, C. (eds.), Handbook of Creativity, Plenum, New York, pp. 341–381.Google Scholar
  40. Crutchfield, R. (1962). Conformity and creative thinking. In Gruber, H., Terrell, G., and Wertheimer, M. (eds.), Contemporary Approaches to Creative Thinking, Atherton Press, New York, pp. 120–140.Google Scholar
  41. Cziko, G. A. (1998). From Blind to creative: In defense of Donald Campbell’ s selectionist theory of human creativity. J. Creat. Behav. 32: 192–208.Google Scholar
  42. Davidson, J. E., and Sternberg, R. J. (1984). The role of insight in intellectual giftedness. Gifted Child Quart. 28: 58–64.Google Scholar
  43. Day, J. D., Engelhardt, J. L., Maxwell, S. E., and Bolig, E. E. (1997). Comparison of static and dynamic assessment procedures and their relation to independent performance. J. Educ. Psychol. 89(2): 358–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dellas, M., and Gaier, E. L. (1970). Identification of creativity: The individual. Psychol. Bull. 73: 55–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dewey, J. (1933). How We Think, Heath, Boston.Google Scholar
  46. Ericsson, K. A. (ed.) (1996). The Road to Excellence, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
  47. Feuerstein, R. (1979). The Dynamic Assessment of Retarded Performers: The Learning Potential Assessment Device Theory, Instruments, and Techniques, University Park Press, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  48. Fiedler, F. E. (1978). The contingency model and the dynamics of the leadership process. In Bekowitz, L. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 11, Academic Press, New York, pp. 59–112.Google Scholar
  49. Fiedler, F. E. (2002). The curious role of cognitive resources in leadership. In Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E., and Pirozzolo, F. J. (eds.), Multiple Intelligences and Leadership, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 91–104.Google Scholar
  50. Fiedler, F. E., and Link, T. G. (1994). Leader intelligence, interpersonal stress, and task performance. In Sternberg, R. J., and Wagner, R. K. (eds.), Mind in Context: Interactionist Perspectives on Human Intelligence, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 152–167.Google Scholar
  51. Findlay, C. S., and Lumsden, C. J. (1988). The creative mind: Toward an evolutionary theory of discovery and invention. J. Soc. Biol. Struc. 11: 3–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Finke, R. (1990). Creative Imagery: Discoveries and Inventions in Visualization, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  53. Finke, R. (1995). A creative insight and preinventive forms. In Sternberg, R. J. and Davidson, J. E. (eds.), The Nature of Insight, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 255–280.Google Scholar
  54. Frensch, P. A., and Sternberg, R. J. (1989). Expertise and intelligent thinking: When is it worse to know better? In Sternberg, R. J. (ed.), Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, Vol. 5, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 157–188.Google Scholar
  55. Garcia, J., and Koelling, R. A. (1966). The relation of cue to consequence in avoidance learning. Psychon. Sci. 4: 123–124.Google Scholar
  56. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Gardner, H. (1991). The Unschooled Mind, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Gardner, H. (1993a). Creating Minds, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Gardner, H. (1993b). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Gardner, H. (1994). The creator’ s patterns. In Feldman, D. H., Csikszentmihalyi, M., and Gardner, H. (eds.), Changing the World: A Framework for the Study of Creativity, Praeger, Westport, CT, pp. 69–84.Google Scholar
  61. Gardner, H. (1995). Leading Minds, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21{st Century}, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Gardner, H. (2004). Changing Minds: The Art and Science of Changing Our Own and Other People’ s Minds, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  64. Gardner, H., Krechevsky, M., Sternberg, R. J., and Okagaki, L. (1994). Intelligence in context: Enhancing students’ practical intelligence for school. In McGilly, K. (ed.), Classroom Lessons: Integrating Cognitive Theory and Classroom Practice, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 105–127.Google Scholar
  65. Getzels, J. W., and Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1976). The Creative Vision: Problem Finding in Art, Van Nostrand, Chicago.Google Scholar
  66. Glover, J. A. (1977). Risky shift and creativity. Soc. Behav. Person. 5(2): 317–320.Google Scholar
  67. Goethals, G. R., Sorenson, G. J., and Burns, J. M. (eds.). (2004), Encyclopedia of Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  68. Golann, S. E. (1962). The creativity motive. J. Person. 30: 588–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., and McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  70. Gottfredson, L. S. (2003a). Discussion: On Sternberg’ s ‘Reply to Gottfredson’ . Intelligence 31(4): 415–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gottfredson, L. S. (2003b). Dissecting practical intelligence theory: Its claims and evidence. Intelligence 31(4): 343–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gough, H. G., and Woodworth, D. G. (1960). Stylistic variations among professional research scientists. J. Psychol. 49: 87–98.Google Scholar
  73. Grigorenko, E. L., Jarvin, L., and Sternberg, R. J. (2002). School-based tests of the triarchic theory of intelligence: Three settings, three samples, three syllabi. Contemporary Educ. Psychol. 27: 167–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Grigorenko, E. L., and Sternberg, R. J. (1998). Dynamic testing. Psychol. Bull. 124: 75–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Grigorenko, E. L., and Sternberg, R. J. (2001). Analytical, creative, and practical intelligence as predictors of self-reported adaptive functioning: A case study in Russia. Intelligence 29: 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gruber, H. E. (1981). Darwin on Man: A Psychological Study of Scientific Creativity, 2nd edn. (original work published 1974), University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  77. Guilford, J. P. (1968). Intelligence has three facets. Science 160(3828): 615–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Guthke, J. (1993). Current trends in theories and assessment of intelligence. In Hamers, J. H. M., Sijtsma, K., and Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M. (eds.), Learning Potential Assessment, Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, pp. 13–20.Google Scholar
  79. Guyote, M. J., and Sternberg, R. J. (1981). A transitive-chain theory of syllogistic reasoning. Cogn. Psychol. 13: 461–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Haywood, H. C., and Tzuriel, D. (1992). Epilogue: The status and future of interactive assessment. In Haywood, H. C., and Tzuriel, D. (eds.), Interactive Assessment, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 38–63.Google Scholar
  81. Hedlund, J., Forsythe, G. B., Horvath, J. A., Williams, W. M., Snook, S., and Sternberg, R. J. (2003). Identifying and assessing tacit knowledge: Understanding the practical intelligence of military leaders. Leadership Quart. 14: 117–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hersey, P., and Blanchard, K. H. (1969). Management of Organizational Behavior, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  83. House, R. J. (1971). A path–goal theory of leader effectiveness. Admin. Sci. Quart. 16: 321–339.Google Scholar
  84. House, R. J. (1996). Path–goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformed theory. Leadership Quart. 7: 323–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Howe, M. J., Davidson, J. W., and Sloboda, J. A. (1998). Innate talents: Reality or myth? Behav. Brain Sci. 21: 399–442.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Howells, L. T., and Becker, S. W. (1962). Seating arrangement and leadership emergence. J. Abnormal Social Psychol. 64: 148–150.Google Scholar
  87. Hunt, J. G. (2004). What is leadership? In Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T., and Sternberg, R. J. (eds.), The Nature of Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 19–47.Google Scholar
  88. “Intelligence and its measurement”: A symposium (1921). J. Educ. Psychol. 12: 123–147, 195–216, 271–275.Google Scholar
  89. Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability, Praeger/Greenwood, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  90. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1988). Freedom and constraint in creativity. In Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.), The Nature of Creativity, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 202–219.Google Scholar
  91. Kaplan, C. A., and Simon, H. A. (1990). In search of insight. Cogn. Psychol. 22: 374–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Koestler, A. (1964). The Act of Creation, Dell, New York.Google Scholar
  93. Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd edn., University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  94. Langley, P., Simon, H. A., Bradshaw, G. L., and Zytkow, J. M. (1987). Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Processes, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  95. Leavitt, H. J. (1951). Some effects of certain communication patterns on group performance. J. Abnormal Soc. Psychol. 46: 38–50.Google Scholar
  96. Lewin, K., and Lippitt, R. (1938). An experimental approach to the study of autocracy and democracy: A preliminary note. Sociometry 1: 292–300.Google Scholar
  97. Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., and White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. J. Soc. Psychol. 10: 271–301.Google Scholar
  98. Lidz, C. S. (Ed.) (1987). Dynamic assessment, The Guilford Press, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Lidz, C. S. (1991). Practitioner’ s Guide to Dynamic Assessment, Guilford Press, New York.Google Scholar
  100. Lubart, T. I., and Sternberg, R. J. (1995). An investment approach to creativity: Theory and data. In Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B., and Finke, R. A. (eds.), The Creative Cognition Approach, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  101. MacKinnon, D. W. (1962). The nature and nurture of creative talent. Am. Psychol. 17: 484–495.Google Scholar
  102. MacKinnon, D. W. (1965). Personality and the realization of creative potential. Am. Psychol. 20: 273–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Mann, R. D. (1959). A review of the relationship between personality and performance in small groups. Psychol. Bull. 56: 241–270.Google Scholar
  104. Martindale, C. (1999). Biological bases of creativity. In Sternberg R. J. (ed.), Handbook of Creativity, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 137–152.Google Scholar
  105. Maslow, A. (1967). The creative attitude. In Mooney, R. L. and Rasik, T. A. (eds.), Explorations in Creativity, Harper & Row, New York, pp. 43–57.Google Scholar
  106. McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., and Lowell, E. L. (1953). The Achievement Motive, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  107. McGregor, D. M. (1960). The Human Side of Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  108. Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to Authority, Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., and Rodriguez, M. L. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science 244: 933–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Morrow, I. J., and Stern, M. (1990). Stars, adversaries, producers, and phantoms at work: A new leadership typology. In Clark, K. E., and Clark, M. B. (eds.), Measures of Leadership, Center for Creative Leadership, Greensboro, NC, pp. 419–440.Google Scholar
  111. Mumford, M. D., and Connelly, M. S. (1991). Leaders as creators: Leader performance and problem solving in ill-defined domains. Leadership Quart. 2: 289–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Mumford, M. D., Scott, G. M., Gaddis, B., and Strange, J. M. (2002). Leading creative people: Orchestrating expertise and relationships. Leadership Quart. 13: 705–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ochse, R. (1990). Before the Gates of Excellence, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Perkins, D. N. (1981). The Mind’ s Best Work, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  115. Perkins, D. N. (1995). Insight in minds and genes. In Sternberg, R. J., and Davidson, J. E. (eds.), The Nature of Insight, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 495–534.Google Scholar
  116. Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E., and Pirozzolo, F. J. (2002), Multiple Intelligences and Leadership, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
  117. Roe, A. (1952). The Making of a Scientist, Dodd, Mead, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Rogers, C. R. (1954). Toward a theory of creativity. ETC: Rev. Gen. Semantics 11: 249–260.Google Scholar
  119. Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in Thinking. Cognitive Development in Social Context, Oxford University Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  120. Rubenson, D. L., and Runco, M. A. (1992). The psychoeconomic approach to creativity. New Ideas Psychol. 10: 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sashkin, M. (2004). Transformational leadership approaches: A review and synthesis. In Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T., and Sternberg, R. J. (eds.), The Nature of Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 171–196.Google Scholar
  122. Schmidt, F. L., and Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychol. Bull. 124: 262–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shartle, C. L. (1951). Studies of naval leadership. Part I. In Guetzkow, H. (ed.), Group, Leadership and Men, Carnegie Press, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 119–133.Google Scholar
  124. Simonton, D. K. (1994). Greatness: Who Makes History and Why? Guilford, New York.Google Scholar
  125. Simonton, D. K. (1997). Creative productivity: A predictive and explanatory model of career trajectories and landmarks. Psychol. Rev. 104: 66–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Simonton, D. K. (1998). Donald Campbell’ s model of the creative process: Creativity as blind variation and selective retention. J. Creative Behav. 32: 153–158.Google Scholar
  127. Sloman, S. A. (1996). The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychol. Bull. 119: 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sosik, J. J., and Megerian, L. E. (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance: The role of self–other agreement on transformational leadership perceptions. Group Org. Manag. 24: 367–390.Google Scholar
  129. Spearman, C. (1904). ‘General intelligence,’ objectively determined and measured. Am. J. Psychol. 15(2): 201–293.Google Scholar
  130. Spearman, C. (1927). The Abilities of Man, Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  131. Spreitzer, G. M., McCall, M. W. Jr., and Mahoney, J. D. (1997). Early identification of international executive potential. J. Appl. Psychol. 82: 6–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Staudinger, U. M., and Baltes, P. M. (1996). Interactive minds: A facilitative setting for wisdom-related performance? J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 71: 746–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Staudinger, U. M., Lopez, D. F., and Baltes, P. B. (1997). The psychometric location of wisdom-related performance: Intelligence, personality, and more? Person. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 23: 1200–1214.Google Scholar
  134. Staudinger, U. M., Smith, J., and Baltes, P. B. (1992). Wisdom-related knowledge in life review task: Age differences and the role of professional specialization. Psychol. Aging 7: 271–281.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sternberg, R. J. (1977). Intelligence, Information Processing, and Analogical Reasoning: The Componential Analysis of Human Abilities, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  136. Sternberg, R. J. (1980a). Representation and process in linear syllogistic reasoning. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 109: 119–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sternberg, R. J. (1980b). Sketch of a componential subtheory of human intelligence. Behav. Brain Sci. 3: 573–584.Google Scholar
  138. Sternberg, R. J. (1981). Intelligence and nonentrenchment. J. Educ. Psychol. 73: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sternberg, R. J. (1982). Natural, unnatural, and supernatural concepts. Cogn. Psychol. 14: 451–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sternberg, R. J. (1983). Components of human intelligence. Cognition 15: 1–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sternberg, R. J. (1984). Toward a triarchic theory of human intelligence. Behav. Brain Sci. 7: 269–287.Google Scholar
  142. Sternberg, R. J. (1985a). Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  143. Sternberg, R. J. (1985b). Implicit theories of intelligence, creativity, and wisdom. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 49(3): 607–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Sternberg, R. J. (1987a). Most vocabulary is learned from context. In McKeown, M. G., and Curtis, M. E. (eds.), The Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 89–105.Google Scholar
  145. Sternberg, R. J. (1987b). The psychology of verbal comprehension. In Glaser, R. (ed.), Advances in Instructional Psychology, Vol. 3, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 97–151.Google Scholar
  146. Sternberg, R. J. (ed.). (1988). The Nature of Creativity: Contemporary Psychological Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  147. Sternberg, R. J. (1990). Metaphors of Mind, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  148. Sternberg, R. J. (1993). Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test, Unpublished test.Google Scholar
  149. Sternberg, R. J. (1994). Answering questions and questioning answers. Phi Delta Kappan 76(2): 136–138.Google Scholar
  150. Sternberg, R. J. (1995). In Search of the Human Mind, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  151. Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Successful Intelligence, Plume, New York.Google Scholar
  152. Sternberg, R. J. (1998a). Abilities are forms of developing expertise. Educ. Res. 27: 11–20.Google Scholar
  153. Sternberg, R. J. (1998b). A balance theory of wisdom. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 2: 347–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sternberg, R. J. (ed.). (1998c). Handbook of Creativity, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  155. Sternberg, R. J. (1998d). Metacognition, abilities, and developing expertise: What makes an expert student? Instruct. Sci. 26: 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sternberg, R. J. (1999a). Intelligence as developing expertise. Contemporary Educ. Psychol. 24: 359–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sternberg, R. J. (1999b). A propulsion model of types of creative contributions. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 3: 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sternberg, R. J. (1999c). The theory of successful intelligence. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 3: 292–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sternberg, R. J. (ed.). (2000). Handbook of Intelligence, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  160. Sternberg, R. J. (2001). Why schools should teach for wisdom: The balance theory of wisdom in educational settings. Educ. Psychol. 36(4): 227–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sternberg, R. J. (2002). Smart people are not stupid, but they sure can be foolish: The imbalance theory of foolishness. In Sternberg, R. J. (ed.), Why Smart People Can be so Stupid, Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 232–242.Google Scholar
  162. Sternberg, R. J. (ed.). (2003a). The Anatomy of Impact: What has Made the Great Works of Psychology Great? American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp. 223–228.Google Scholar
  163. Sternberg, R. J. (ed.). (2003b). Psychologists Defying the Crowd: Stories of Those Who Battled the Establishment and Won, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  164. Sternberg, R. J. (2003c). What is an expert student? Educ. Res. 32(8): 5–9.Google Scholar
  165. Sternberg, R. J. (2003d). WICS: A model for leadership in organizations. Acad. Manag. Learn. Educ. 2: 386–401.Google Scholar
  166. Sternberg, R. J. (2003e). WICS: A Theory of Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity, Synthesized, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  167. Sternberg, R. J. (2003f). WICS as a model of giftedness. High Ability Stud. 14: 109–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Sternberg, R. J. (2004a). Culture and intelligence. Am. Psychol. 59: 325–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Sternberg, R. J. (2004b). WICS: A model of educational leadership. Educ. Forum 68(2): 108–114.Google Scholar
  170. Sternberg, R. J., Castejón, J. L., Prieto, M. D., Hautamäki, J., and Grigorenko, E. L. (2001a). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Sternberg triarchic abilities test in three international samples: An empirical test of the triarchic theory of intelligence. Eur. J. Psychol. Assess. 17(1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sternberg, R. J., and Clinkenbeard, P. R. (1995). The triarchic model applied to identifying, teaching, and assessing gifted children. Roeper Rev. 17(4): 255–260.Google Scholar
  172. Sternberg, R. J., and Detterman, D. K. (eds.). (1986). What is Intelligence? Ablex Publishing Corporation Norwood, NJ.Google Scholar
  173. Sternberg, R. J., Ferrari, M., Clinkenbeard, P. R., and Grigorenko, E. L. (1996). Identification, instruction, and assessment of gifted children: A construct validation of a triarchic model. Gifted Child Quart. 40(3): 129–137.Google Scholar
  174. Sternberg, R. J., Forsythe, G. B., Hedlund, J., Horvath, J., Snook, S., Williams, W. M., Wagner, R. K., and Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Practical Intelligence in Everyday Life, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  175. Sternberg, R. J., and Gardner, M. K. (1982). A componential interpretation of the general factor in human intelligence. In Eysenck, H. J. (ed.), A Model for Intelligence, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 231–254.Google Scholar
  176. Sternberg, R. J., and Gardner, M. K. (1983). Unities in inductive reasoning. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 112: 80–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sternberg, R. J., and Gastel, J. (1989a). Coping with novelty in human intelligence: An empirical investigation. Intelligence 13: 187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sternberg, R. J., and Gastel, J. (1989b). If dancers ate their shoes: Inductive reasoning with factual and counterfactual premises. Memory Cogn. 17: 1–10.Google Scholar
  179. Sternberg, R. J., and Grigorenko, E. L. (1997, Fall). The cognitive costs of physical and mental ill health: Applying the psychology of the developed world to the problems of the developing world. Eye Psi Chi 2(1): 20–27.Google Scholar
  180. Sternberg, R. J., and Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Teaching for Successful Intelligence, Skylight Training and Publishing Inc, Arlington Heights, IL.Google Scholar
  181. Sternberg, R. J., and Grigorenko, E. L. (2002a). Dynamic Testing, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  182. Sternberg, R. J., and Grigorenko, E. L. (eds.). (2002b). The General Factor of Intelligence: How General Is It?, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
  183. Sternberg, R. J., Grigorenko, E. L., Ferrari, M., and Clinkenbeard, P. (1999). A triarchic analysis of an aptitude–treatment interaction. Eur. J. Psychol. Assess. 15(1): 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Sternberg, R. J., Grigorenko, E. L., Ngrosho, D., Tantufuye, E., Mbise, A., Nokes, C., Jukes, M., and Bundy, D. A. (2002a). Assessing intellectual potential in rural Tanzanian school children. Intelligence 30: 141–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Sternberg, R. J., and Hedlund, J. (2002). Practical intelligence, g, and work psychology. Human Perform. 15(1/2): 143–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sternberg, R. J., and Kalmar, D. A. (1997). When will the milk spoil? Everyday induction in human intelligence. Intelligence 25(3): 185–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Sternberg, R. J., Kaufman, J. C., and Pretz, J. E. (2002b). The Creativity Conundrum: A Propulsion Model of Kinds of Creative Contributions, Psychology Press, New York.Google Scholar
  188. Sternberg, R. J., Kaufman, J. C., and Pretz, J. E. (2003). A propulsion model of creative leadership. Leadership Quart. 14: 455–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Sternberg, R. J., and Lubart, T. I. (1991). An investment theory of creativity and its development. Human Dev. 34(1): 1–31.Google Scholar
  190. Sternberg, R. J., and Lubart, T. I. (1995). Defying the Crowd: Cultivating Creativity in a Culture of Conformity, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  191. Sternberg, R. J., and Lubart, T. I. (1996). Investing in creativity. Am. Psychol. 51(7): 677–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Sternberg, R. J., and Nigro, G. (1980). Developmental patterns in the solution of verbal analogies. Child Dev. 51: 27–38.Google Scholar
  193. Sternberg, R. J., Nokes, K., Geissler, P. W., Prince, R., Okatcha, F., Bundy, D. A., and Grigorenko, E. L. (2001b). The relationship between academic and practical intelligence: A case study in Kenya. Intelligence 29: 401–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Sternberg, R. J., and O’ Hara, L. (1999). Creativity and intelligence. In Sternberg, R. J. (ed.), Handbook of Creativity, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 251–272.Google Scholar
  195. Sternberg, R. J., Okagaki, L., and Jackson, A. (1990). Practical intelligence for success in school. Educ. Leadership 48: 35–39.Google Scholar
  196. Sternberg, R. J., and Powell, J. S. (1983). Comprehending verbal comprehension. Am. Psychol. 38: 878–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Sternberg, R. J., Powell, J. S., and Kaye, D. B. (1983). Teaching vocabulary-building skills: A contextual approach. In Wilkinson, A. C. (ed.), Classroom Computers and Cognitive Science, Academic Press, New York, pp. 121–143.Google Scholar
  198. Sternberg, R. J., and the Rainbow Project Collaborators (2005). Augmenting the SAT through assessments of analytical, practical, and creative skills. In Camara, W., and Kimmel, E. (eds.), New Tools for Admission to Higher Education, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
  199. Sternberg, R. J., and the Rainbow Project Team. (2002, February 16). The Rainbow Project: Augmenting the Validity of the SAT, Paper presented to American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  200. Sternberg, R. J., the Rainbow Project Collaborators, and University of Michigan Business School Project Collaborators (2004). Theory based university admissions testing for a new millennium. Educ. Psychol. 39(3): 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Sternberg, R. J., and Rifkin, B. (1979). The development of analogical reasoning processes. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 27: 195–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sternberg, R. J., and Smith, C. (1985). Social intelligence and decoding skills in nonverbal communication. Soc. Cogn. 2: 168–192.Google Scholar
  203. Sternberg, R. J., Torff, B., and Grigorenko, E. L. (1998a). Teaching for successful intelligence raises school achievement. Phi Delta Kappan 79: 667–669.Google Scholar
  204. Sternberg, R. J., Torff, B., and Grigorenko, E. L. (1998b). Teaching triarchically improves school achievement. J. Educ. Psychol. 90: 374–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Sternberg, R. J., and Turner, M. E. (1981). Components of syllogistic reasoning. Acta Psychol. 47: 245–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Sternberg, R. J., and Vroom, V. H. (2002). The person versus the situation in leadership. Leadership Quart. 13: 301–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Sternberg, R. J., and Wagner, R. K. (1993). The g–ocentric view of intelligence and job performance is wrong. Curr. Direct. Psychol. Sci. 2(1): 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Sternberg, R. J., Wagner, R. K., and Okagaki, L. (1993). Practical intelligence: The nature and role of tacit knowledge in work and at school. In Reese, H., and Puckett, J. (eds.), Advances in Lifespan Development, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 205–227.Google Scholar
  209. Sternberg, R. J., Wagner, R. K., Williams, W. M., and Horvath, J. A. (1995). Testing common sense. Am. Psychol. 50(11): 912–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Sternberg, R. J., and Williams, W. M. (1996). How to Develop Student Creativity, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.Google Scholar
  211. Sternberg, R. J., and Williams, W. M. (2001). Educational Psychology, Allyn & Bacon, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  212. Stogdill, R. M. (1948). Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. J. Psychol. 25: 35–71.Google Scholar
  213. Stogdill, R. M., and Coons, A. E. (1957). Leader Behavior: Its Description and Measurement, Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  214. Tetewsky, S. J., and Sternberg, R. J. (1986). Conceptual and lexical determinants of nonentrenched thinking. J. Memory Lang. 25: 202–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Tolstoy, L. (1994). War and Peace (Translated by C. Garnett), Modern Library, New York.Google Scholar
  216. Tzuriel, D. (1995). Dynamic-Interactive Assessment: The Legacy of L. S. Vygotsky and Current Developments, Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  217. Vernon, P. E. (1971). The Structure of Human Abilities, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  218. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  219. Vroom, V. H., and Jago, A. G. (1978). On the validity of the Vroom–Yetton model. J. Appl. Psychol. 63: 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Vroom, V. H., and Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and Decision Making, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  221. Wagner, R. K. (1987). Tacit knowledge in everyday intelligent behavior. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 52(6): 1236–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Wagner, R. K., and Sternberg, R. J. (1986). Tacit knowledge and intelligence in the everyday world. In Sternberg, R. J., and Wagner, R. K. (eds.), Practical Intelligence: Nature and Origins of Competence in the Everyday World, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 51–83.Google Scholar
  223. Ward, T. B. (1994). Structured imagination: The role of conceptual structure in exemplar generation. Cogn. Psychol. 27: 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Ward, T. B., Smith, S. M., and Finke, R. A. (1999). Creative cognition. In Sternberg, R. J. (ed.), Handbook of Creativity, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 189–212.Google Scholar
  225. Weisberg, R. W. (1986). Creativity, Genius and Other Myths, Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  226. Weisberg, R. W. (1993). Creativity: Beyond the Myth of Genius, Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  227. Williams, W. M., Blythe, T., White, N., Li, J., Sternberg, R. J., and Gardner, H. I. (1996). Practical Intelligence for School: A Handbook for Teachers of Grades 5–8, HarperCollins, New York.Google Scholar
  228. Williams, W. M., Blythe, T., White, N., Li, J., Gardner, H., and Sternberg, R. J. (2002). Practical intelligence for school: Developing metacognitive sources of achievement in adolescence. Dev. Rev. 22(2): 162–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Williams, W. M., and Sternberg, R. J. (1988). Group intelligence: Why some groups are better than others. Intelligence 12: 351–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Yukl, G. (1994). Leadership in Organizations, 3rd edn., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  231. Zaccaro, S. J., Kemp, C., and Bader, P. (2004). Leader traits and attributes. In Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T., and Sternberg, R. J. (eds.), The Nature of Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 101–124.Google Scholar
  232. Zimbardo, P. (1972). Pathology of imprisonment. Society 9(6): 4–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Sternberg
    • 1
  1. 1.PACE CenterYale UniversityNew Haven

Personalised recommendations