Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 385–407 | Cite as

A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in College Students

  • Paul R. Pintrich


A conceptual framework for assessing student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom is presented. The framework is based on a self-regulatory (SRL) perspective on student motivation and learning in contrast to a student approaches to learning (SAL) perspective. The differences between SRL and SAL approaches are discussed, as are the implications of the SRL conceptual framework for developing instruments to assess college student motivation and learning. The conceptual framework may be useful in guiding future research on college student motivation and learning.

self-regulation motivation learning strategies college students 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior, Dorsey Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control, W.H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Biggs, J. (1993). What do inventories of students' learning processes really measure? A theoretical review and clarification. Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 63: 3–19.Google Scholar
  4. Biggs, J. (2001). Enhancing learning: A matter of style of approach? In Sternberg, R., and Zhang, L. (eds.), Perspectives on Thinking, Learning, and Cognitive Styles, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 73–102.Google Scholar
  5. Boekaerts, M. (1993). Being concerned with well-being and with learning. Educ. Psychol. 28: 148–167.Google Scholar
  6. Boekaerts, M., and Niemivirta, M. (2000). Self-regulated learning: Finding a balance between learning goals and ego-protective goals. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., and Zeidner, M. (eds.), Handbook of Self-regulation: Theory, Research, and Applications, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 417–450.Google Scholar
  7. Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., and Zeidner, M. (2000). Handbook of Self-Regulation, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  8. Bransford, J., Brown, A., and Cocking, R. (1999). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  9. Corno, L. (1993). The best-laid plans: Modern conceptions of volition and educational research. Educ. Res. 22: 14–22.Google Scholar
  10. Dyne, A., Taylor, P., and Boulton-Lewis, G. (1994). Information processing and the learning context: An analysis from recent perspectives in cognitive psychology. Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 64: 359–372.Google Scholar
  11. Eccles, J.S., Wigfield, A., and Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In Damon, W. (Series ed.) and N. Eisenberg (Vol. ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Social, Emotional, and Personality Development, 5th edn., Wiley, New York, pp. 1017–1095.Google Scholar
  12. Entwistle, N., and Waterston, S. (1988). Approaches to studying and levels of processing in university students. Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 58: 258–265.Google Scholar
  13. Garcia, T., McCann, E., Turner, J., and Roska, L. (1998). Modeling the mediating role of volition in the learning process. Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 23: 392–418.Google Scholar
  14. Garcia, T., and Pintrich, P.R. (1994). Regulating motivation and cognition in the classroom: The role of self-schemas and self-regulatory strategies. In Schunk, D.H., andZimmerman, B.J. (eds.), Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance: Issues and Educational Applications, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 127–153.Google Scholar
  15. Gollwitzer, P. (1996). The volitional benefits of planning. In Gollwitzer, P., and Bargh, J. (eds.), The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior, Guilford Press, New York, pp. 287–312.Google Scholar
  16. Hofer, B., Yu, S., and Pintrich, P.R. (1998). Teaching college students to be self-regulated learners. In Schunk, D.H., and Zimmerman, B.J. (eds.), Self-Regulated Learning: From Teaching to Self-Reflective Practice, Guilford Press, New York, pp. 57–85.Google Scholar
  17. Howard-Rose, D., and Winne, P. (1993). Measuring component and sets of cognitive processes in self-regulated learning. J. Educ. Psychol. 85(4): 591–604.Google Scholar
  18. Karabenick, S., and Sharma, R. (1994). Seeking academic assistance as a strategic learning resource. In Pintrich, P.R., Brown, D.R., and Weinstein, C.E. (eds.), Student Motivation, Cognition, and Learning: Essays in Honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 189–211.Google Scholar
  19. Kuhl, J. (1984). Volitional aspects of achievement motivation and learned helplessness: Toward a comprehensive theory of action control. In Maher, B., and Maher, W. (eds.), Progress in Experimental Personality Research, Vol. 13, Academic Press, New York, pp. 99–171.Google Scholar
  20. Lonka, K., and Lindblom-Ylanne, S. (1996). Epistemologies, conceptions of learning, and study practices in medicine and psychology. Higher Educ. 31: 5–24.Google Scholar
  21. Marton, F., and Saljo, R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning: I. Outcome and process. Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 46: 4–11.Google Scholar
  22. McKeachie, W.J., Pintrich, P.R., and Lin, Y.G. (1985). Teaching learning strategies. Educ. Psychol. 20: 153–160.Google Scholar
  23. Messick, S. (1989). Validity. In Linn, R.L. (ed.), Educational Measurement, 3rd edn., Macmillan, New York, pp. 13–104.Google Scholar
  24. Midgley, C., Arunkumar, R., and Urdan, T. (1996). “If I don't do well tomorrow, there's a reason”: Predictors of adolescents' use of academic self-handicapping strategies. J. Educ. Psychol. 88: 423–434.Google Scholar
  25. Newman, R. (1998). Adaptive help seeking: A role of social interaction in self-regulated learning. In Karabenick, S. (ed.), Strategic Help-Seeking: Implications for Learning and Teaching, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 13–37.Google Scholar
  26. Norem, J.K., and Cantor, N. (1986). Defensive pessimism: Harnessing anxiety as motivation. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 51: 1208–1217.Google Scholar
  27. Pintrich, P.R. (1999a). Taking control of research on volitional control: Challenges for future theory and research. Learn. Individ. Differ. 11: 335–354.Google Scholar
  28. Pintrich, P.R. (1999b). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. Int. J. Educ. Res. 31: 459–470.Google Scholar
  29. Pintrich, P.R. (2000a). Educational psychology at the millennium: A look back and a look forward. Educ. Psychol. 35: 221–226.Google Scholar
  30. Pintrich, P.R. (2000b). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., and Zeidner, M. (eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 451–502.Google Scholar
  31. Pintrich, P.R., and De Groot, E.V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. J. Educ. Psychol. 82: 33–40.Google Scholar
  32. Pintrich, P.R., McKeachie, W., and Lin, Y.-G. (1987). Teaching a course in learning to learn. Teach. Psychol. 14: 81–86.Google Scholar
  33. Pintrich, P.R., and Schunk, D.H. (2002). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research and Applications, Prentice Hall Merrill, Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  34. Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D., Garcia, T., and McKeachie, W. (1991). A Manual for the Use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  35. Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D., Garcia, T., and McKeachie, W. (1993). Predictive validity and reliability of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Educ. Psychol. Meas. 53: 801–813.Google Scholar
  36. Pintrich, P.R., Wolters, C., and Baxter, G. (2000). Assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning. In Schraw, G., and Impara, J. (eds.), Issues in the Measurement of Metacognition, Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, Lincoln, NE.Google Scholar
  37. Pressley, M., and Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal Protocols of Reading: The Nature of Constructively Responsive Reading, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  38. Ryan, A., and Pintrich, P.R. (1997). “Should I ask for help?” The role of motivation and attitudes in adolescents' help seeking in math class. J. Educ. Psychol. 89: 329–341.Google Scholar
  39. Sansone, C., Weir, C., Harpster, L., and Morgan, C. (1992). Once a boring task, always a boring task? The role of interest as a self-regulatory mechanism. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 63: 379–390.Google Scholar
  40. Schneider, W., and Pressley, M. (1997). Memory Development Between 2 and 20, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
  41. Schunk, D.H., and Ertmer, P. (2000). Self-regulation and academic learning: Self-efficacy enhancing interventions. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., and Zeidner, M. (eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 631–649.Google Scholar
  42. Simpson, M., Hynd, C., Nist, S., and Burrell, K. (1997). College academic assistance programs and practices. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 9: 39–87.Google Scholar
  43. Snow, R., Corno, L., and Jackson, D. (1996). Individual differences in affective and conative functions. In Berliner, D., and Calfee, R. (eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology, Macmillan, New York, pp. 243–310.Google Scholar
  44. Stokes, D. (1997). Pasteur's Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Brookings Institute, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  45. Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., and Waterhouse, F. (1999). Relations between teachers' approaches to teaching and student approaches to learning. Higher Educ. 37: 57–70.Google Scholar
  46. VanderStoep, S., Pintrich, P.R., and Fagerlin, A. (1996). Disciplinary differences in self-regulated learning in college students. Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 21: 345–362.Google Scholar
  47. Vermetten, Y., Lodewijks, H., and Vermunt, J. (1999). Consistency and variability of learning strategies in different university courses. Higher Educ. 37: 1–21.Google Scholar
  48. Vermunt, J. (1996). Metacognitive, cognitive, and affective aspects of learning styles and strategies: A phenomenographic analysis. Higher Educ. 31: 25–50.Google Scholar
  49. Weiner, B. (1986). An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Weinstein, C., and Mayer, R. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In Wittrock, M. (ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching and Learning, Macmillan, New York, pp. 315–327.Google Scholar
  51. Weinstein, C., Zimmermann, S., and Palmer, D. (1988). Assessing learning strategies: The design and development of the LASSI. In Weinstein, C., Goetz, E., and Alexander, P. (eds.), Learning and Study Strategies: Issues in Assessment, Instruction, and Evaluation, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 25–40.Google Scholar
  52. Winne, P., and Hadwin, A. (1998). Studying as self-regulated learning. In Hacker, D., Dunlosky, J., and Graesser, A. (eds.), Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 279–306.Google Scholar
  53. Winne, P., Jamieson-Noel, D., and Muis, K. (2001). Methodological issues and advances in researching tactics, strategies, and self-regulated learning. In Pintrich, P.R., and Maehr, M.L. (eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement: Vol. 12. New Directions in Measures and Methods, JAI Press Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 121–155.Google Scholar
  54. Winne, P., and Perry, N. (2000). Measuring self-regulated learning. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., and Zeidner, M. (eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 531–566.Google Scholar
  55. Wolters, C. (1998). Self-regulated learning and college students' regulation of motivation. J. Educ. Psychol. 90: 224–235.Google Scholar
  56. Wolters, C., and Pintrich, P.R. (1998). Contextual differences in student motivation and self-regulated learning in mathematics, English, and social studies classrooms. Instr. Sci. 26: 27–47.Google Scholar
  57. Zeidner, M. (1998). Test Anxiety: The State of the Art, Plenum, NewYork.Google Scholar
  58. Zimmerman, B.J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulatory perspective. Educ. Psychol. 33: 73–86.Google Scholar
  59. Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., and Zeidner, M. (eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation: Theory, Research, and Applications, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 13–39.Google Scholar
  60. Zimmerman, B.J., and Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. Am. Educ. Res. J. 23: 614–628.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Combined Program in Education and PsychologyThe University of MichiganAnn ArborMichigan

Personalised recommendations