Bald eagle mercury exposure varies with region and site elevation in New York, USA

  • C. R. DeSorboEmail author
  • N. M. Burgess
  • P. E. Nye
  • J. J. Loukmas
  • H. A. Brant
  • M. E. H. Burton
  • C. P. Persico
  • D. C. Evers


Freshwater fish in several regions of New York State (NYS) are known to contain concentrations of mercury (Hg) associated with negative health effects in wildlife and humans. We collected blood and breast feathers from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings throughout NYS, with an emphasis on the Catskill region to determine their exposure to Hg. We assessed whether habitat type (lake or river), region (Delaware–Catskill region vs. rest of NY) or sample site elevation influenced Hg concentrations in bald eagle breast feathers using ANCOVA. The model was significant and accounted for 41% of the variability in log10 breast feather Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations in nestling breast feathers were significantly greater in the Delaware–Catskill Region (geometric mean: 14.5 µg/g dw) than in the rest of NY (7.4 µg/g, dw), and greater at nests located at higher elevations. Habitat type (river vs. lake) did not have a significant influence on breast feather Hg concentrations. Geometric mean blood Hg concentrations were significantly greater in Catskill nestlings (0.78 µg/g ww) than in those from the rest of NY (0.32 µg/g). Mercury concentrations in nestling breast feathers and especially blood samples from the Delaware–Catskill region were generally greater than those reported for most populations sampled elsewhere, including areas associated with significant Hg pollution problems. Bald eagles can serve as valuable Hg bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems of NYS, particularly given their broad statewide distribution and their tendency to nest across all major watersheds and different habitat types.


Mercury Hg Haliaeetus leucocephalus Elevation Catskill 



Partial funding for this study was made by The Nature Conservancy and the generosity of their support base. We would like to thank Alan White, The Nature Conservancy, for his role in administering this project and for providing key support. John Brennan, Glenn Hewitt, Scott VanArsdale, Steve Joule and Mike Allen of NYSDEC aided in the collection of samples. We thank Robert Taylor, Trace Element Research Laboratory, Texas A & M University, for his expertize in estimating percent moisture for blood samples. Lauren Gilpatrick assisted in managing references cited in this manuscript. We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers who provided helpful comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript. Finally, we would like to thank numerous landowners and land managers that facilitated fieldwork by allowing access to bald eagle nests for this work.


Partial funding for this study was made by The Nature Conservancy. Funding for publication of this study was made possible by a grant from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Agreement # 124842).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Supplementary material

10646_2019_2153_MOESM1_ESM.docx (547 kb)
Supplementary Figures and Tables


  1. Abernathy AR, Cumbie PM (1977) Mercury accumulation by largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in recently impounded reservoirs. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 17:595–602. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackerman JT, Eagles-Smith CA, Herzog MP (2011) Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: Toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging. Environ Sci Technol 45:5418–5425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ackerman JT, Eagles-Smith CA, Herzog MP, Hartman CA, Peterson SH, Evers DC, Jackson AK, Elliott JE, Vander Pol SS, Bryan CE (2016) Avian mercury exposure and toxicological risk across western North America: a synthesis. Sci Total Environ 568:749–769. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anthony RG, Garrett MG, Schuler CA (1993) Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary. J Wildl Manag 57:11–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atwell L, Hobson KA, Welch HE (1998) Biomagnification and bioaccumulation of mercury in an arctic marine food web: insights from stable nitrogen isotope analysis. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:1114–1121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldigo BP, Sloan RJ, Smith SB, Denslow ND, Blazer VS, Gross TS (2006) Polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, and potential endocrine disruption in fish from the Hudson River, New York, USA. Aquat Sci 68:206–228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bearhop S, Ruxton GD, Furness RW (2000) Dynamics of mercury in blood and feathers of Great Skuas. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:1638–1643. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouton SN, Frederick PC, Spalding MG, McGill H (1999) Effects of chronic, low concentrations of dietary methylmercury on the behavior of juvenile great egrets. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:1934–1939. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowerman WW, Evans ED, Giesy JP, Postupalsky S (1994) Using feathers to assess risk of mercury and selenium to bald eagle reproduction in the Great Lakes region. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 27:294–298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowerman WW, Giesy JP, Best DA, Kramer VJ (1995) A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery. Environ Health Perspect 103:51–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowerman WW, Roe AS, Gilbertson MJ, Best DA, Sikarskie JG, Mitchell RS, Summer CL (2002) Using bald eagles to indicate the health of the Great Lakes’ environment. Lakes Reserv Res Manag 7:183–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brasso RL, Cristol DA (2008) Effects of mercury exposure on the reproductive success of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Ecotoxicology 17:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Broadley HJ, Cottingham KL, Baer NA, Weathers KC, Ewing HA, Chaves-Ulloa R, Chickering J, Wilson AM, Shrestha J, Chen CY (2019) Factors affecting MeHg bioaccumulation in stream biota: the role of dissolved organic carbon and diet. Ecotoxicology 28:949–963. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buehler DA (2000) Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). In: Poole A, Gill F (eds) The birds of North America, No. 506. The Birds of North America Inc., Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  15. Burgess NM (2005) Mercury in biota and its effects. In: Parsons MB, Percival JB (eds) Mercury: sources, measurements, cycles and effects, Mining Association of Canada, Short Course 34, pp 235–258Google Scholar
  16. Burgess NM, Hobson KA (2006) Bioaccumulation of mercury in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and common loons (Gavia immer) in relation to lake chemistry in Atlantic Canada. Hydrobiologia 567:275–282. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burgess NM, Meyer MW (2008) Methylmercury exposure associated with reduced productivity in common loons. Ecotoxicology 17:83–91. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burns DA, Riva-Murray K (2018) Variation in fish mercury concentrations in streams of the Adirondack region, New York: a simplified screening approach using chemical metrics. Ecol Indic 84:648–661. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen CY, Stemberger RS, Kamman NC, Mayes BM, Folt CL (2005) Patterns of Hg bioaccumulation and transfer in aquatic food webs across multi-lake studies in the Northeast US. Ecotoxicology 14:135–147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chumchal MM, Drenner RW, Fry B, Hambright KD, Newland LW (2008) Habitat-specific differences in mercury concentration in a top predator from a shallow lake. Trans Am Fish Soc 137:195–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colborn T (1991) Epidemiology of Great Lakes bald eagles. J Toxicol Environ Health 33:395–453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Condon AM, Cristol DA (2009) Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:395–401. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cristol DA, Brasso RL, Condon AM, Fovargue RE, Friedman SL, Hallinger KK, Monroe AP, White AE (2008) The movement of aquatic mercury through terrestrial food webs. Science 320:335. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cristol DA, Mojica EK, Varian-Ramos CW, Watts BD (2012) Molted feathers indicate low mercury in Bald Eagles of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Ecol Indic 18:20–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Depew DC, Basu N, Burgess NM, Campbell LM, Evers DC, Grasman KA, Scheuhammer AM (2012) Derivation of screening benchmarks for dietary methylmercury exposure for the common loon (Gavia immer): rationale for use in ecological risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 31:2399–2407. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DeSorbo CR (2007) Spatial, temporal, and habitat-based patterns of mercury exposure in bald eagles in interior Maine. M.Sc. Thesis. Antioch University, Keene, New HampshireGoogle Scholar
  27. DeSorbo CR, Burgess NM, Todd CS, Evers DC, Bodaly RA, Massey BH, Mierzykowski SE, Persico CP, Gray RB, Hanson WE, Meattey DE, Regan KJ (2018) Mercury concentrations in bald eagles across an impacted watershed in Maine, USA. Sci Total Environ 627:1515–1527. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. DeSorbo CR, Nye P, Loukmas JJ, Evers DC (2008) Assessing mercury exposure and spatial patterns in adult and nestling bald eagles in New York state, with an emphasis on the Catskill region. Report BRI 2008–06. The Nature Conservancy, Albany, New York. Biodiversity Research Institute, Gorham, Maine, p 34Google Scholar
  29. DeSorbo CR, Todd CS, Mierzykowski SE, Evers DC, Hanson W (2009) Assessment of mercury in Maine’s interior bald eagle population. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Orono, Maine, p 42Google Scholar
  30. Drenner RW, Chumchal MM, Jones CM, Lehmann CMB, Gay DA, Donato DI (2013) Effects of mercury deposition and coniferous forests on the mercury contamination of fish in the South Central United States. Environ Sci Technol 47:1274–1279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Driscoll CT, Driscoll KM, Mitchell MJ, Raynal DJ (2003) Effects of acidic deposition on forest and aquatic ecosystems in New York State inputs of acidic deposition have deleterious effects on forest and aquatic ecosystems in New York. Ecotoxicology 123:327–336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Driscoll CT, Han Y-J, Chen CY, Evers DC, Lambert KF, Holsen TM, Kamman NC, Munson RK (2007) Mercury contamination in forest and freshwater ecosystems in the northeastern United States. Bioscience 57:17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Driscoll CT, Mason RP, Chan HM, Jacob DJ, Pirrone N (2013) Mercury as a global pollutant: sources, pathways, and effects. Environ Sci Technol 47:4967–4983. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Driscoll CT, Taylor MS, Lepak JM, Josephson DC, Jirka KJ, Kraft CE (2019) Temporal trends in fish mercury concentrations in an Adirondack Lake managed with a continual predator removal program. Ecotoxicology (this issue)Google Scholar
  35. Dykstra CR, Meyer MW, Rasmussen PW, Warnke DK (2005) Contaminant concentrations and reproductive rate of Lake Superior Bald Eagles, 1989-2001. J Gt Lakes Res 31:227–235. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dykstra CR, Route WT, Meyer MW, Rasmussen PW (2010) Contaminant concentrations in bald eagles nesting on Lake Superior, the upper Mississippi River, and the St. Croix River. J Gt Lakes Res 36:561–569. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dykstra CR, Route WT, Williams KA, Meyer MW, Key RL (2019) Trends and patterns of PCB, DDE, and mercury contamination in bald eagle nestlings in the upper Midwest. J Great Lakes Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eagles-Smith CA, Wiener JG, Eckley C, Willacker JJ, Evers DC, Marvin-DiPasquale M, Obrist D, Aiken G, Lepak J, Jackson AK, Webster J, Stewart AR, Davis J, Fleck J, Alpers C, Ackerman JT (2016) Mercury in western North America: an synthesis of environmental contamination, fluxes, bioaccumulation, and risk to fish and wildlife. Sci Total Environ 568:1213–1226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elliott JE, Harris ML (2002) An ecotoxicological assessment of chlorinated hydrocarbon effects on bald eagle populations. Rev Toxicol 4:1–60. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. ESRI (2018) ArcMap 10.6.1 for Desktop. Redlands, CA. Environmental Systems Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  41. Evers DC (2018) The effects of methylmercury on wildlife: a comprehensive review and approach for interpretation. In: Dellasala DA, Goldstein MI (eds) Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 181–194. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Evers DC, Burgess NM, Champoux L, Hoskins B, Major A, Goodale MW, Taylor RJ, Poppenga R, Daigle T (2005) Patterns and interpretation of mercury exposure in freshwater avian communities in northeastern North America. Ecotoxicology 14:193–221. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Evers DC, Clair TA (2005) Mercury in northeastern North America: a synthesis of existing databases. Ecotoxicology 14:7–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Evers DC, Han Y-J, Driscoll CT, Kamman NC, Goodale MW, Lambert KF, Holsen TM, Chen CY, Clair TA, Butler T (2007) Biological mercury hotspots in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Bioscience 57:29–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Evers DC, Kaplan JD, Meyer MW, Reaman PS, Braselton WE, Major A, Burgess N, Scheuhammer AM (1998) Geographic trend in mercury measured in common loon feathers and blood. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:173–183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Evers DC, Paruk JD, McIntyre JW, and Barr JF (2010) Common Loon (Gavia immer), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America Poole AF (ed.) Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.
  47. Evers DC, Savoy LJ, DeSorbo CR, Yates DE, Hanson W, Taylor KM, Siegel LS, Cooley JH, Bank MS, Major A, Munney K, Mower BF, Vogel HS, Schoch N, Pokras M, Goodale MW, Fair J (2008) Adverse effects from environmental mercury loads on breeding common loons. Ecotoxicology 17:69–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Evers DC, Schmutz JA, Basu N, DeSorbo CR, Fair J, Gray CE, Paruk JD, Perkins M, Uher-Koch BD, Wright KG (2014) Historic and contemporary mercury exposure and potential risk to Yellow-billed Loons (Gavia adamsii) breeding in Alaska and Canada. Waterbirds 37:147–159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Evers DC, Wiener JG, Basu N, Bodaly RA, Morrison HA, Williams KA (2011) Mercury in the Great Lakes region: bioaccumulation, spatiotemporal patterns, ecological risks, and policy. Ecotoxicology 1487–1499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Field A, Miles J, Field Z (2012) Discovering Statistics Using R. Sage Publication Ltd., London, UK, p 269, 292Google Scholar
  51. Fimreite N (1974) Mercury contamination of aquatic birds in northwestern Ontario. J Wildl Manag 38:120. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fitzgerald WF, Engstrom DR, Mason RP, Nater EA (1998) The case for atmospheric mercury contamination in remote areas. Environ Sci Technol 32:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fournier F, Karasov WH, Kenow KP, Meyer MW, Hines RK (2002) The oral bioavailability and toxicokinetics of methylmercury in common loon (Gavia immer) chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 133:703–714. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Frenzel RW (1984) Environmental contaminants and ecology of bald eagles in southcentral Oregon. Dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OregonGoogle Scholar
  55. Furness RW, Muirhead SJ, Woodburn M (1986) Using bird feathers to measure mercury in the environment: relationships between mercury content and moult. Mar Pollut Bull 17:27–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gilmour CC, Podar M, Bullock AL, Graham AM, Brown SD, Somenahally AC, Johs A, Hurt RA, Bailey KL, Elias DA (2013) Mercury methylation by novel microorganisms from new environments. Environ Sci Technol 47:11810–11820. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Golden NH, Rattner BA (2003) Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 176:67–136. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Grigal DF (2003) Mercury sequestration in forests and peatlands: a review. J Environ Qual 32:393–405. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hall BD, Baron LA, Somers CM (2009) Mercury concentrations in surface water and harvested waterfowl from the prairie pothole region of Saskatchewan. Environ Sci Technol 43:8759–8766. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hallinger KK, Cristol DA (2011) The role of weather in mediating the effect of mercury exposure on reproductive success in tree swallows. Ecotoxicology 20:1368–1377. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Helander B, Olsson M, Reutergardh L (1982) Residue levels of organochlorine and mercury compounds in unhatched eggs and the relationships to breeding success in White-tailed Sea Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla in Sweden. Holarct Ecol 5:349–366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Henny CJ, Kaiser JL, Grove RA, Bentley VR, Elliott JE (2003) Biomagnification factors (fish to Osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and OC pesticides. Environ Monit Assess 84:275–315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jackson A, Evers DC, Eagles-Smith CA, Ackerman JT, Willacker JJ, Elliott JE, Lepak JM, Vander Pol SS, Bryan CE (2016) Mercury risk to avian piscivores across western United States and Canada. Sci Total Environ 568:685–696. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jackson AK, Evers DC, Etterson MA, Condon AM, Folsom SB, Detweiler J, Schmerfeld J, Cristol DA (2011) Mercury exposure affects the reproductive success of a free-living terrestrial songbird, the Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). Auk 128:759–769. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kamman N, Burgess NM, Driscoll CT, Simonin HA, Goodale MW, Linehan J, Estabrook R, Hutcheson M, Major A, Scheuhammer AM (2005) Mercury in freshwater fish of northeast North America - a geographic perspective based on fish tissue monitoring databases. Ecotoxicology 14:163–180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Keeler GJ, Gratz LE, Al-Wali K (2005) Long-term atmospheric mercury wet deposition at Underhill, Vermont. Ecotoxicology 14:71–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kenow KP, Grasman KA, Hines RK, Meyer MW, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A, Spalding MG, Gray BR (2007a) Effects of methylmercury exposure on the immune function of juvenile common loons (Gavia immer). Environ Toxicol Chem 26:1460–1469. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kenow KP, Hoffman DJ, Hines RK, Meyer MW, Bickham JW, Matson CW, Stebbins KR, Montagna P, Elfessi A (2008) Effects of methylmercury exposure on glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks. Environ Pollut 156:732–738. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kenow KP, Meyer MW, Hines RK, Karasov WH (2007b) Distribution and accumulation of mercury in tissues of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:1047–1055. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kocman D, Wilson SJ, Amos HM, Telmer KH, Steenhuisen F, Sunderland EM, Mason RP, Outridge P, Horvat M (2017) Toward an assessment of the global inventory of present-day mercury releases to freshwater environments. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14:138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kramar DE, Carstensen B, Prisley S, Campbell J (2019) Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of nestling Bald Eagles in coastal and inland Virginia. Avian Res 10:1–7.
  72. Kramar D, Goodale MW, Kennedy L, Carstensen B, Kaur T (2005) Relating cover characteristics and common loon mercury levels using geographical information systems. Ecotoxicology 14:253–262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lawson ST, Scherbatskoy TD, Malcolm EG, Keeler GJ (2003) Cloud water and throughfall deposition of mercury and trace elements in a high elevation spruce-fir forest at Mt. Mansfield, Vermont. J Environ Monit 5:578–583. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Levinton JS, Pochron ST (2008) Temporal and geographic trends in mercury concentrations in muscle tissue in five species of Hudson River, USA, fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:1691–1697. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meyer MW, Evers DC, Daulton T, Braselton WE (1995) Common loons (Gavia immer) nesting on low pH lakes in northern Wisconsin have elevated blood mercury content. Water Air Soil Pollut 80:871–880. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Miller EK, Vanarsdale A, Keeler GJ, Chalmers A, Poissant L, Kamman NC, Brulotte R (2005) Estimation and mapping of wet and dry mercury deposition across Northeastern North America. Ecotoxicology 14:53–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Monson BA, Staples DF, Bhavsar SP, Holsen TM, Schrank CS, Moses SK, McGoldrick DJ, Backus SM, Williams KA (2011) Spatiotemporal trends of mercury in walleye and largemouth bass from the Laurentian Great Lakes Region. Ecotoxicology 1555–1567. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Munthe J, Bodaly RA, Branfireun BA, Driscoll CT, Gilmour CC, Harris R, Horvat M, Lucotte M, Malm O (2007) Recovery of mercury-contaminated fisheries Ambio 36:33–44.[33:ROMF]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Norheim G, Frøslle A (1978) The degree of methylation and organ distribution of mercury in some birds of prey in Norway. Acta Pharm Toxicol (Copenh) 43:196–204. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nye PE (2009) Growth and reestablishment of bald eagles in the Northeast United States. Oral Presentation at the Annual Meeting of The Raptor Research Foundation, Pitlochry, Scotland, 29 September–4 October, 2009Google Scholar
  81. NYSDEC (2016) Conservation plan for bald eagles in New York state. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New York, p 52. plus appendicesGoogle Scholar
  82. NYSDEC (2008) Strategic monitoring of mercury in New York state fish. Prepared for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New York, p 73. plus appendicesGoogle Scholar
  83. NYSDEC (2005) Mercury and organic chemicals in fish from the New York City reservoir system. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New York, p. 109. plus appendicesGoogle Scholar
  84. NYSDEC (2006a) Total and methyl mercury in the Neversink Reservoir watershed. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New York, p 37. plus appendicesGoogle Scholar
  85. NYSDEC (2006b) New York state bald eagle report 2006. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. NYSDOH (2018) Health advice on eating sportfish and game. New York State Department of Health. Albany, New York, p 4. Accessed 20 Nov 2019
  87. Pacyna JM, Travnikov O, De Simone F, Hedgecock IM, Sundseth K, Pacyna EG, Steenhuisen F, Pirrone N, Munthe J, Kindbom K (2016) Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale. Atmos Chem Phys 16:12495–12511. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. PADEP (2018) Commonwealth of Pennsylvania fish consumption advisories—2019. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental ProtectionGoogle Scholar
  89. Palmer RS, Gerrard JM, Stalmaster MV (1988) Bald eagle. In: Palmer RS (ed) Handbook of North American birds, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 187–237Google Scholar
  90. Pennuto CM, Lane OP, Evers DC, Taylor RJ, Loukmas J (2005) Mercury in the northern crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen), in New England, USA. Ecotoxicology 14:149–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pittman HT, Bowerman WW, Grim LH, Grubb TG, Bridges WC (2011) Using nestling feathers to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of mercury in bald eagles at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA. Ecotoxicology 20:1626–1635. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rimmer CC, Mcfarland KP, Evers DC, Miller EK, Aubry Y, Busby D, Taylor RJ (2005) Mercury concentrations in Bicknell’s thrush and other insectivorous passerines in montane forests of northeastern North America. Ecotoxicology 14:223–240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rimmer CC, Miller EK, McFarland KP, Taylor RJ, Faccio SD (2010) Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in the terrestrial food web of a montane forest. Ecotoxicology 19:697–709. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Riva-Murray K, Chasar LC, Bradley PM, Burns DA, Brigham ME, Smith MJ, Abrahamsen TA (2011) Spatial patterns of mercury in macroinvertebrates and fishes from streams of two contrasting forested landscapes in the eastern United States. Ecotoxicology 20:1530–1542. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roe AS (2004) Spatial and temporal analyses of environmental contaminants and trophic status of Bald Eagles in the Great Lakes region. Dissertation, Clemson University, Clemson, South CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  96. Route W, Key R, Bowerman W, Kozie K, VanderMeulen D (2019) Protocol for monitoring environmental contaminants in bald eagles (version 2.0): Great Lakes Inventory and Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/GLKN/NRR—2019/1983. National Park Service, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  97. Route W, Rasmussen P, Key R, Meyer M, Martell M (2011) Spatial patterns of persistent contaminants in bald eagle nestlings at three national parks in the upper midwest 2006–2009. Natural Resource Technical Report. NPS/GLKN/NRTR-2011/431. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado, p 74. plus appendicesGoogle Scholar
  98. Rutkiewicz J, Nam D-H, Cooley T, Neumann K, Padilla IB, Route W, Strom S, Basu N (2011) Mercury exposure and neurochemical impacts in bald eagles across several Great Lakes states. Ecotoxicology 20:1669–1676. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sauer AK, Driscoll CT, Evers DC, Adams EM, Yang Y. (this issue) Mercury Exposure in Songbird Communities along an Elevational Gradient on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondack Park (New York, USA). EcotoxicologyGoogle Scholar
  100. Schetagne R, Verdon R (1999) Mercury in Fish of Natural Lakes of Northern Québec. In: Lucotte M, Schetagne R, Thérien N, Langlois C, Tremblay A (eds) Mercury in the biogeochemical cycle: natural environments and hydroelectric reservoirs of Northern Québec (Canada). Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 115–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Scheuhammer AM, Basu N, Burgess NM, Elliott JE, Campbell GD, Wayland M, Champoux L, Rodrigue J (2008) Relationships among mercury, selenium, and neurochemical parameters in common loons (Gavia immer) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Ecotoxicology 17:93–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Scheuhammer AM, Lord SI, Wayland M, Burgess NM, Champoux L, Elliott JE (2016) Major correlates of mercury in small fish and common loons (Gavia immer) across four large study areas in Canada. Environ Pollut 210:361–370. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Scheuhammer AM, Meyer MW, Sandheinrich MB, Murray MW (2007) Effects of environmental methylmercury on the health of wild birds, mammals, and fish. Ambio 36:12–18.[12:EOEMOT]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schoch N, Glennon MJ, Evers DC, Duron M, Jackson AK, Driscoll CT, Ozard JW, Sauer AK (2014a) The impact of mercury exposure on the common loon (Gavia immer) population in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Waterbirds 37:94–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schoch N, Jackson AK, Duron M, Evers DC, Glennon MJ, Driscoll CT, Yu X, Simonin H, Sauer AK (2014b) Wildlife criterion value for the Common. Loon (Gavia immer) Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Waterbirds 37:76–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schoch N, Yang Y, Buxton, Valerie L, Yanai RD, Evers DC (2019) Spatial patterns and temporal trends in mercury concentrations from 1998 to 2016 in Adirondack loons (Gavia immer): has this top predator benefited from Hg emission controls? Ecotoxicology, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  107. Simonin HA, Loukmas JJ, Skinner LC, Roy KM (2008) Lake variability: Key factors controlling mercury concentrations in New York State fish. Environ Pollut 154:107–115. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Simonin HA, Loukmas JJ, Skinner LC, Roy KM, Paul EA (2009) Trends in mercury concentrations in New York state fish. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83:214–218. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Snodgrass JW, Jagoe CH, Bryan Jr. AL, Brant HA, Burger J (2000) Effects of trophic status and wetland morphology, hydroperiod, and water chemistry on mercury concentrations in fish. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:171–180.
  110. Spalding MG, Frederick PC, McGill HC, Bouton SN, McDowell LR (2000a) Methylmercury accumulation in tissues and its effects on growth and appetite in captive great egrets. J Wildl Dis 36:411–422. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Spalding MG, Frederick PC, McGill HC, Bouton SN, Richey LJ, Schumacher IM, Blackmore CG, Harrison J (2000b) Histologic, neurologic, and immunologic effects of methylmercury in captive great egrets. J Wildl Dis 36:423–435. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stalmaster MV (1987) The Bald Eagle. Universe Books, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  113. Stern GA, Macdonald RW, Outridge PM, Wilson S, Chételat J, Cole A, Hintelmann H, Loseto LL, Steffen A, Wang F, Zdanowicz C (2012) How does climate change influence arctic mercury? Sci Total Environ 414:22–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Streets DG, Horowitz HM, Jacob DJ, Lu Z, Levin L, Schure AFH, Sunderland EM (2017) Total mercury released to the environment by human activities. Environ Sci Technol 51:5969–5977. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. SYSTAT (2009) SYSTAT 13: Statistics II. SYSTAT Software Inc., Chicago, IL., P. II–10Google Scholar
  116. Thompson CM, Nye PE, Schmidt GA, Garcelon DK (2005) Foraging ecology of bald eagles in a freshwater tidal system. J Wildl Manag 69:609–617.[0609:FEOBEI]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Todd CS, Young LS, Owen Jr. RB, Gramlich FJ (1982) Food habits of bald eagles in Maine. J Wildl Manag 46:363–645. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Townsend J (2011) Mercury accumulation in forest floor horizons, songbirds and salamanders along a forested elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Dissertation, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  119. Townsend JM, Driscoll CT, Rimmer CC, Mcfarland KP (2014) Avian, salamander, and forest floor mercury concentrations increase with elevation in a terrestrial ecosystem. Environ Toxicol Chem 33:208–215. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Townsend JM, Rimmer CC, Driscoll CT, McFarland KP, Iñigo-Elias E (2013) Mercury concentrations in tropical resident and migrant songbirds on Hispaniola. Ecotoxicology 22:86–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. USEPA (2013) Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed 11 Feb 2019
  122. USEPA (2007a) An update of the current status of the RCRA methods development program by Barry Lesnik and Ollie Fordham. USEPA, Office of Solid Waste, Methods Team (5307W) (doc #4BLWP804.98)Google Scholar
  123. USEPA (2007b) Method 7473 mercury in solids and solutions by thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. USEPAGoogle Scholar
  124. USEPA (1997) Mercury Study Report to Congress Volume VII: Characterization of human and wildlife risks from mercury exposure in the United States. EPA-452/R-97-009. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards and Office of Research Development, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  125. USGS (2019) National hydrography dataset best resolution (NHD) for hydrologic unit (HUC) 4. National Geospatial Program-PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  126. USGS (2017) The National Map. In: 3DEP Prod. Serv. Natl. Map, 3D Elev. Progr. Web page. Accessed 8 Jan 2019
  127. Vanarsdale A, Weiss J, Keeler G, Miller E, Boulet G, Brulotte R, Poissant L (2005) Patterns of mercury deposition and concentration in northeastern North America (1996-2002). Ecotoxicology 14:37–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Verta M, Rekolainen S, Kinnunen K (1986) Causes of increased fish mercury levels in Finnish reservoirs. Publ Water Res lnstitute, Natl Board Waters, Finland, No. 65Google Scholar
  129. Watras CJ, Back RC, Halvorsen S, Hudson RJM, Morrison KA, Wente SP (1998) Bioaccumulation of mercury in pelagic freshwater food webs. Sci Total Environ 219:183–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Weech SA, Scheuhammer AM, Elliott JE (2006) Mercury exposure and reproduction in fish-eating birds breeding in the Pinchi Lake region, British Columbia, Canada. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:1433–1440. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Weech SA, Wilson LK, Langelier KM, Elliott JE (2003) Mercury residues in livers of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead or dying in British Columbia, Canada (1987–1994). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 45:562–569. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Welch LS (1994) Contaminant burdens and reproductive rates of bald eagles breeding in Maine. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Maine, Orono, MaineGoogle Scholar
  133. Whitney MC, Cristol DA (2017) Impacts of sublethal mercury exposure on birds: a detailed review. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 1–51.
  134. Wiemeyer SN, Bunck CM, Stafford CJ (1993) Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs-1980-84-and further interpretations of relationships to productivity and shell thickness. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 24:213–227. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wiemeyer SN, Frenzel RW, Anthony RG, Riley B, Haliaeetus BE (1989) Environmental contaminants in blood of western bald eagles. J Raptor Res 23:140–146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wiemeyer SN, Lamont TG, Bunck CM, Sindelar CR, Gramlich FJ, Fraser JD, Byrd MA (1984) Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorobiphenyl, and mercury residues in bald eagle eggs-1969-79-and their relationships to shell thinning and reproduction. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 13:529–549. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wiener JG, Krabbenhoft DP, Heinz GH, Scheuhammer AM (2003) Ecotoxicology of mercury. In: Hoffman DJ, Rattner BA, Burton Jr. GA, Cairns Jr. J (eds) Handbook of ecotoxicology (2nd Edition), 2nd edn. Lewis Publishers Boca Raton, FL, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 409–464Google Scholar
  138. Wierda MR (2009) Using Bald Eagles to track spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in Michigan’s aquatic systems. Dissertation, Clemson University, Clemson, South CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  139. Wood PB, White JH, Steffer A, Wood JM, Facemire CF, Percival HF (1996) Mercury concentrations in tissues of Florida bald eagles. J Wildl Manag 60:178–185. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Yang Y, Yanai RD, Schoch N, Buxton, Valerie L, Gonzales KE, Evers DC, Lampman GG (2019) Determining optimal sampling strategies for monitoring mercury and reproductive success in common loons in the Adirondacks of New York. Ecotoxicology, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  141. Ye Z, Mao H, Driscoll CT (2019) Impacts of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology on mercury deposition over lake vs land surface in upstate New York. Ecotoxicology. this issue.
  142. Yu X, Driscoll CT, Huang J, Holsen TM, Blackwell BD (2013) Modeling and mapping of atmospheric mercury deposition in adirondack park, New York. PLoS ONE 8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yu X, Driscoll CT, Montesdeoca M, Evers D, Duron M, Williams K, Schoch N, Kamman NC (2011) Spatial patterns of mercury in biota of Adirondack, New York lakes. Ecotoxicology 20:1543–1554. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biodiversity Research InstitutePortlandUSA
  2. 2.Environment & Climate Change CanadaMount PearlCanada
  3. 3.New York State Department of Environmental ConservationAlbanyUSA
  4. 4.Savannah River National LaboratoryAikenUSA
  5. 5.1926 Tarrytown Rd.Feura BushUSA

Personalised recommendations