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Honeybee survival and flight capacity are compromised by insecticides used for controlling melon pests in Brazil

Abstract

The extensive use of insecticides can cause adverse side effects on pollinators, which negatively impact crop productivity. The pollination carried out by the honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is crucial in increasing the productivity of the melon (Cucumis melo L.). The main objective of this study was to assess if insecticides applied in the cultivation of cantaloupe melon exhibit significant levels of toxicity toward A. mellifera. We tested the toxicity of azadirachtin, pyriproxyfen, chlorantraniliprole, and imidacloprid, which are commonly sprayed to manage melon pests such as the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), the pickleworm Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) and the melonworm Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Three treatments were carried out, 0.0×, 0.1x and 1.0x the concentration recommended by the manufacturer for the control of those pests. Repellency tests, analysis of mortality through contact and ingestion, and flight tests were performed. The insecticide imidacloprid caused mortality rates above 90% in all tested exposure pathways, displaying high residue persistence on plants. Although not causing significant mortality in the ingestion test, pyriproxyfen caused significant mortality after exposure through contact, and change in flight ability. Azadirachtin caused mortality in the ingestion test and impaired the flight ability of bees, while chlorantraniliprole only impaired the flight ability. Moreover, bees were not repelled by these insecticides, suggesting that they may collect contaminated food in the field while foraging. Altogether, ecofriendly, alternative pest control options should be developed, as well as the adoption of more selective insecticides, in order to reduce the non-target effects on honeybees and guarantee their pollination services.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by ‘Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais’ – FAPEMIG (grant FORTIS-TCT-10254/2014). Special thanks to Matheus de Almeida Vicente and Lucas Pacheco Raad who helped with some of the data collection.

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Correspondence to Lessando Moreira Gontijo.

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Naiara Gomes, I., Ingred Castelan Vieira, K., Moreira Gontijo, L. et al. Honeybee survival and flight capacity are compromised by insecticides used for controlling melon pests in Brazil. Ecotoxicology 29, 97–107 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-019-02145-8

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Keywords

  • Non-target effect
  • Pollinator
  • Neonicotinoid
  • Whitefly
  • Integrated Pest Management
  • Pickleworm
  • Melonworm