Chronic toxicity and biochemical response of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) exposed to acetamiprid and propiconazole alone or combined
Acetamiprid and ergosterol-inhibiting fungicide (EBI) are frequently applied to many flowering plants, while honey bees are pollinating agents or pollinators of the flowers. Hence honey bees are often exposed to these pesticides. But until now, the effects of theses combinations at field-realistic doses on honey bee health have been poorly investigated. In this study, we explore the synergistic mortality and some physiological effects in surviving honey bees after chronic oral exposure to acetamiprid and/or propiconazole in the laboratory. The results indicated that chronic combined exposure to acetamiprid and propiconazole produced a significant synergistic effect on mortality both for newly emerged bees (50% mortality in 7.2 days) and forager bees (50% mortality in 4.8 days). Honey bee weight of newly emerged bees was decreased after feeding food with a field concentration of acetamiprid and propiconazole, alone or combined for 10 days. Combination of acetamiprid and propiconazole also modulated the activities of P450s, GST and CAT in newly emerged bees and forager bees than either alone, but neither pesticide affected the activity of AChE. These results show that chronic combined exposure to pesticides of relatively low toxicity may caused severely physiological disruptions that could be potentially damaging for the honey bees.
KeywordsApis cerana cerana Synergistic mortality Detoxification enzymes Physiological effects
We gratefully acknowledge anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions.
This study was found by the National Special Construction Apiculture Technology System of China (No. CARS-44-SYZ13, CARS-44-KXJ10), the State Level-scientific Institute Basal Research Fund of China (No. 2016hzs1J018; No.1630042018006) and the Youth Innovation Project of Hainan Science & Technology Association (QCXM201712).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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