, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 103–116 | Cite as

Allelopathic effects of Canada goldenrod leaf extracts on the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce reinforced under salt stress

  • Congyan WangEmail author
  • Bingde Wu
  • Kun Jiang


Allelopathic effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of the natives play a crucial role in the successful invasion of numerous invaders. Meanwhile, soil salinity is an emerging driver of the spread of many invaders, especially in the colonization of saline habitats. Thus, the allelopathic effects of the invaders on the seed germination and seedling growth of the natives may be altered or even reinforced under salt stress. This study aims to address the allelopathic effects of the notorious invader Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.; goldenrod hereafter) on the seed germination and seedling growth of the native lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.; lettuce hereafter) under a gradient of salt stress. Goldenrod leaf extracts with high concentration significantly decreased root length, leaf shape index, germination percentage, germination potential, germination index, germination vigor index, and germination rate index of lettuce. However, goldenrod leaf extracts with low concentration significantly increased root length and leaf width of lettuce. Goldenrod leaf extracts with high concentration display more serious allelopathic effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce than those with low concentration. Salt stress regardless of concentration significantly decreased seedling height, root length, leaf shape index, and seedling biomass (fresh weight) of lettuce. The combined goldenrod leaf extracts and salt stress have a synergistic effect on seedling height, root length, leaf shape index, germination percentage, germination potential, germination index, and germination rate index of lettuce. Thus, the allelopathic effects of the invaders on the seed germination and seedling growth of the natives may be reinforced under salt stress. Accordingly, salt stress may be beneficial to the further invasion of the invaders mainly via the reduced growth performance of the natives.


Allelopathic effects Growth performance Invasive plant species Seed germination and seedling growth Salt stress Solidago canadensis 



We are very grateful to the anonymous reviewers for the insightful and constructive comments that greatly improved this manuscript.


This study was supported by National Key Research & Development Program of China (2016YFC0502002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31300343), and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Technology and Material of Water Treatment.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10646_2018_2004_MOESM1_ESM.doc (128 kb)
Supplementary Information
10646_2018_2004_MOESM2_ESM.doc (60 kb)
Supplementary Information


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environment and Ecology, Academy of Environmental Health and Ecological Security & School of the Environment and Safety EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangP. R. China

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