Cadmium toxicity degree on tomato development is associated with disbalances in B and Mn status at early stages of plant exposure
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Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is frequently coupled to its accumulation in plants, but not always the highest Cd concentration triggers the worst damages, indicating that additional events influence the magnitude of Cd side-effects. We investigated the early mechanisms behind the differential Cd-induced impacts on plant development of four tomato accessions with contrasting tolerance to Cd toxicity. At organ level, the highest Cd concentration was not associated with the largest biomass losses. In leaves, changes in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were not related to differences in Cd concentration, which was unable to provoke H2O2 overproduction on the sixth day of plant exposure to this metal. Further investigation in the mineral profile revealed that magnitude of Cd toxicity depends probably on synergic effects from increased B status, in addition to the own Cd accumulation. Furthermore, disbalances in Mn status (i.e., excess in leaves and deficiency in roots) may enhance Cd toxicity degree. According to data, however, the low magnesium (Mg) status can be linked to tomato tolerance against Cd toxicity. In conclusion, the tomato tolerance degree under short-Cd exposure depends on actively, finely regulation of mineral homeostasis that results in different development of plant organs. The better understanding on the mode of action of Cd toxicity in plants can help in the establishment of strategies to mitigate its impacts on crop yield.
KeywordsBoron phytotoxicity Heavy metal Magnesium status Manganese toxicity Solanum lycopersicum Tolerance level
This work was funded by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP—Grant number 2009/54676-0 to R.A.A.). We thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (R.A.A., M.R.F, and K.L.R), and FAPESP (M.E.A.C.) for the fellowship and scholarships granted (2013/15217-5).
M.E.A.C. and F.A.P. designed the experiment. M.E.A.C. carried out the experiments with the help of M.R.F., K.L.R. and S.A.G. M.E.A.C. analyzed the data, interpreted the results and wrote the manuscript. P.R.C.C. and R.A.A. assisted during the research and writing the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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