, Volume 27, Issue 7, pp 956–967 | Cite as

Toxicity prediction and assessment of an environmentally realistic pesticide mixture to Daphnia magna and Raphidocelis subcapitata

  • E. Silva
  • C. Martins
  • A. S. Pereira
  • S. Loureiro
  • M. J. Cerejeira


In a regulatory perspective addressing the cumulative effect of co-occurring chemicals is the first and most important step in providing a more realistic hazard assessment of chemical cocktails to both man and environment. This study was conducted to show if joint effects on the immobilisation of the crustacean Daphnia magna and on the growth inhibition of algae Raphidocelis subcapitata follow additivity (concentration addition (CA) or independent action (IA) predictions) or if there is an interaction between chemicals in the organisms upon exposure to an environmentally realistic mixture of chlorpyrifos and terbuthylazine, with expected different molecular sites of action. A pattern of antagonism at lower doses and synergism at higher doses was found for acute immobility data, while no deviation from the additive conceptual models was observed in the algae inhibition test. Results in relation to the relevant set of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) and environmental quality standards (EQSs) derived for individual chlorpyrifos and terbuthylazine were evaluated.


Mixture Insecticide Herbicide Daphnia magna Raphidocelis subcapitata Toxicity 



This work was supported by national funds from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through the research unit UID/AGR/04129/2013 (LEAF).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LEAF, Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Instituto Superior de AgronomiaUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Biology and CESAMUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal

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