Advertisement

Ecotoxicology

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 482–489 | Cite as

Methyl-triclosan and triclosan impact embryonic development of Danio rerio and Paracentrotus lividus

  • Sofia Macedo
  • Tiago Torres
  • Miguel M. Santos
Article

Abstract

The presence of emerging pollutants in the environment is of major concern not only because of the potential negative impact in human health, but also due to the potential toxicity to non-target organisms. Within the personal and care products (PCPs), the disinfectant Triclosan (TCS) is one of the most concerning compounds. Once in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), a small part of TCS can be biotransformed into a more persistent by-product: methyl-triclosan (M-TCS). Although several studies have focused on the occurrence of this compound in the water systems, the information on its toxicity to aquatic organisms is very limited. Here, we used embryo bioassays with two aquatic model animals to improve risk assessment of M-TCS; zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo bioassays run up to 144 h post fertilization (hpf) and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) up to 48 hpf, following established protocols. M-TCS and TCS exhibited similar toxicity to zebrafish with a NOEC of 160 µg/L. In contrast, M-TCS induced a delay in the development of the sea urchin larvae at all tested concentrations (1–1000 µg/L), whereas NOEC of TCS for P. lividus embryos was 40 µg/L. Overall, given the reported effects of M-TCS in the close range of environmentally relevant concentrations, and considering the low degradation rate and tendency to bioaccumulation (logKow: 5.2), further studies are warrant to better characterize the risk of this TCS metabolite to aquatic organisms.

Keywords

Emerging compounds Triclosan Methyl-triclosan Risk assessment Embryo bioassays 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was developed under the project INNOVMAR—Innovation and Sustainability in the Management and Exploitation of Marine Resources (reference NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000035), with- in Research Line ECOSERVICES—Assessing the environmental quality, vulnerability and risks for the sustainable management of NW coast natural resources and ecosystem services, supported by North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All Authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Agüera A, Fernández-Alba AR, Piedra L, Mézcua M, Gómez MJ (2003) Evaluation of triclosan and biphenylol in marine sediments and urban wastewaters by pressurized liquid extraction and solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 480(2):193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajao C, Andersson MA, Teplova VV, Nagy S, Gahmberg CG, Andersson LC, Hautaniemi M, Kalasi K, Roivainen M, Salkinoja-Salonen M (2015) Mitochondrial toxicity of triclosan on mammalian cells. Toxicol Rep 2:624–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aranami K, Readman JW (2007) Photolytic degradation of triclosan in freshwater and seawater. Chemosphere 66(6):1052–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balmer ME, Poiger T, Droz C, Romanin K, Bergqvist PA, Müller MD, Buser HR (2004) Occurrence of methyl triclosan, a transformation product of the bactericide triclosan, in fish from various lakes in Switzerland. Environ Sci Technol 38(2):390–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bätscher R (2006a) Methyl-triclosan: acute toxicity to Daphnia magna in a 48-h immobilization test. Environmental Chemistry & Pharmanalytics, RCC Ltd., Itlingen, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  6. Bätscher R (2006b) Methyl-triclosan: toxicity to Scenedesmus subspicatus in a 72-hour algal growth inhibition test. Environmental Chemistry & Pharmanalytics, RCC Ltd., Itlingen, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  7. Bedoux G, Roig B, Thomas O, Dupont V, Le Bot B (2012) Occurrence and toxicity of antimicrobial triclosan and by-products in the environment. Environ Sci Tech Pollut Res 19(4):1044–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellas J, Beiras R, Mariño-Balsa JC, Fernández N (2005) Toxicity of organic compounds to marine invertebrate embryos and larvae: a comparison between the sea urchin embryogenesis bioassay and alternative test species. Ecotoxicology 14(3):337–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boehmer W, Ruedel H, Wenzel A, Schroeter-Kermani C (2004) Retrospective monitoring of triclosan and methyl-triclosan in fish: results from the German environmental specimen bank. Organohalogen Compd 66:1516–1521Google Scholar
  10. Brausch JM, Rand GM (2011) A review of personal care products in the aquatic environment: environmental concentrations and toxicity. Chemosphere 82(11):1518–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castro LFC, Santos MM (2014) To bind or not to bind: the taxonomic scope of nuclear receptor mediated endocrine disruption in invertebrate phyla. Environ Sci Technol 48(10):5361–5363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cherednichenko G, Zhang R, Bannister RA, Timofeyev V, Li N, Fritsch EB (2012) Triclosan impairs excitation–contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle. P Natl Acad Sci 109(35):14158–14163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dann AB, Hontela A (2011) Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action. J Appl Toxicol 31(4):285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farré M, Asperger D, Kantiani L, González S, Petrovic M, Barceló D (2008) Assessment of the acute toxicity of triclosan and methyl triclosan in wastewater based on the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. Anal Bioanal Chem 390(8):1999–2007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Franz S, Altenburger R, Heilmeier H, Schmitt-Jansen M (2008) What contributes to the sensitivity of microalgae to triclosan? Aquat Toxicol 90(2):102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaume B, Bourgougnon N, Auzoux-Bordenave S, Roig B, Le Bot B, Bedoux G (2012) In vitro effects of triclosan and methyl-triclosan on the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. Comp Biochem Phys C 156(2):87–94Google Scholar
  17. Heath RJ, Rock CO (2000) Microbiology: a triclosan-resistant bacterial enzyme. Nature 406(6792):145–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heidler J, Halden RU (2007) Mass balance assessment of triclosan removal during conventional sewage treatment. Chemosphere 66:362–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hwang J, Suh SS, Park SY, Ryu TK, Lee S, Lee TK (2014) Effects of triclosan on reproductive parameters and embryonic development of sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus nudus. Ecotox Environ Safe 100:148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kapoor M, Reddy CC, Krishnasastry MV, Surolia N, Surolia A (2004) Slow-tight-binding inhibition of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase from Plasmodium falciparum by triclosan. Biochem J 381(3):719–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lammer E, Carr GJ, Wendler K, Rawlings JM, Belanger SE, Braunbeck T (2009) Is the fidh embryo toxicity test (FET) with zebrafish (Danio rerio) a potential alternative for the fish acute toxicity test? Comp Biochem Physiol C, Comp Pharmacol Toxicol 149:196–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lyndall J, Fuchsman P, Bock M, Barber T, Lauren D, Leigh K et al. (2010) Probabilistic risk evaluation for triclosan in surface water, sediments, and aquatic biota tissues. Integr Environ Assess Manag 6(3):419–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Oliveira R, Domingues I, Grisolia CK, Soares AM (2009) Effects of triclosan on zebrafish early-life stages and adults. Environ Sci Tech Pollut Res 16(6):679–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Orvos DR, Versteeg DJ, Inauen J, Capdevielle M, Rothenstein A, Cunningham V (2002) Aquatic toxicity of triclosan. Environ Toxicol Chem 21(7):1338–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Petrie B, Barden R, Kasprzyk-Hordern B (2015) A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring. Water Res 72:3–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pintado-Herrera MG, González-Mazo E, Lara-Martín PA (2014) Determining the distribution of triclosan and methyl triclosan in estuarine settings. Chemosphere 95:478–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ramaswamy BR, Shanmugam G, Velu G, Rengarajan B, Larsson DJ (2011) GC–MS analysis and ecotoxicological risk assessment of triclosan, carbamazepine and parabens in Indian rivers. J Hazard Mater 186(2):1586–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Reiss R, Mackay N, Habig C, Griffin J (2002) An ecological risk assessment for triclosan in lotic systems following discharge from wastewater treatment plants in the United States. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:2483–2492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ribeiro S, Torres T, Martins R, Santos MM (2015) Toxicity screening of diclofenac, propranolol, sertraline and simvastatin using Danio rerio and Paracentrotus lividus embryo bioassays. Ecotox Environ Safe 114:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rodrigues P, Reis-Henriques MA, Campos J, Santos MM (2006) Urogenital papilla feminization in male Pomatoschistus minutus from two estuaries in northwestern Iberian Peninsula. Mar Environ Res 62(1):S258–S262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rüdel H, Böhmer W, Müller M, Fliedner A, Ricking M, Teubner D, Schröter-Kermani C (2013) Retrospective study of triclosan and methyl-triclosan residues in fish and suspended particulate matter: results from the German environmental specimen bank. Chemosphere 91(11):1517–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Santos MM, Ruivo R, Lopes-Marques M, Torres T, Carmen B, Castro LFC, Neuparth T (2016) Statins: an undesirable class of aquatic contaminants? Aquat Toxicol 174:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schmidt S, Braun P, Crouse M, Dean A, DuPre E and Palenske N (2013) Triclosan effects on zebrafish heart rate. Proceedings of The National Conference On Undergraduate Research (NCUR) 2013 University of Wisconsin La Crosse, 604–610.Google Scholar
  34. Soares J, Coimbra AM, Reis-Henriques MA, Monteiro NM, Vieira MN, Oliveira JMA et al. (2009) Disruption of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development after full life-cycle parental exposure to low levels of ethinylestradiol. Aquat Toxicol 95(4):330–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Suller MTE, Russell AD (2000) Triclosan and antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemoth 46(1):11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Villa S, Vighi M, Finizio A (2014) Experimental and predicted acute toxicity of antibacterial compounds and their mixtures using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Chemosphere 108:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sofia Macedo
    • 1
  • Tiago Torres
    • 1
  • Miguel M. Santos
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CIMAR/CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental ResearchUniversity of Porto, Group of Endocrine disruptors and Emerging contaminantsPortoPortugal
  2. 2.FCUP—Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations