Joint toxicity of cadmium and SDBS on Daphnia magna and Danio rerio
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Information on joint toxicity is limited. To clarify the joint toxicity and the interactions among toxicants on different aquatic organisms, we investigated the acute toxicity of cadmium and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, two chemicals with high concerns in Chinese waters, on the immobilization of Daphnia magna (D. magna) and the swimming behavior of Danio rerio (D. rerio). Our results illustrated that cadmium and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate expressed a synergistic effect on the immobilization of D. magna; and an antagonistic effect on the swimming speed D. rerio, but a synergistic effect on its vertical position in the water column. Based on the observed data, we found the independent action model was more appropriate than the concentration addition model in the prediction of their joint toxicity. Our results gave an example of the joint toxicity investigation, and aided to comprehensive the toxicity action mode of chemical mixtures.
KeywordsCadmium (Cd) Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) Behavior toxicity Action mode, Independent action (IA) model Concentration addition (CA) model
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, 21477014; NSFC-JST, 21261140334) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. Thanks also go to Seiko Electric Co. Ltd. (Japan) for friendly provision of the lab-mode 3D-biosensor. Sincere thanks also are given to the anonymous reviewers who provided constructive suggestion and comments to us.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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