, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 1194–1201 | Cite as

Occurrence, composition and risk assessment of antibiotics in soils from Kenya, Africa

  • Yuyi Yang
  • Anita Awino Owino
  • Yan Gao
  • Xue Yan
  • Chen Xu
  • Jun WangEmail author


Antibiotics can accumulate in soils via different ways, which may pose serious threat to ecological environment of soil and quality of agricultural products. In this study, the occurrence of 12 antibiotics including four sulfonamides (SAs), four tetracyclines (TETs) and four fluoroquinolones (FQs) was investigated in soils from four sampling sites of Kenya (Mai Mahiu, Narok, Mount Suswa Conservancy, and Juja), Africa. The soils in suburban area of Narok had the highest average concentrations of total 12 antibiotics with an average value of 43.64 μg kg−1 dw (dry weight), followed by Mai Mahiu (26.70 μg kg−1 dw), Juja (24.41 μg kg−1 dw) and Mount Suswa Conservancy (12.21 μg kg−1 dw). Sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine, oxytetracycline, and enrofloxacin were identified as the main antibiotics polluted in soils. Total organic carbon may influence the distribution of SAs in Narok and FQs in Juja. Ecological risk analysis based on the risk quotient showed that SAs detected in soils have higher risk compared to TETs and FQs.


Kenya Soils Sulfonamides Tetracyclines Fluoroquinolones Risk assessment 



This study was funded by Funding Project of Sino-Africa Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Y623321K01), Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (NO. 2015282) and the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Y329671K01).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Yuyi Yang declares that he has no conflict of interest, Anita Awino Owino declares that he has no conflict of interest, Yan Gao declares that he has no conflict of interest, Xue Yan declares that he has no conflict of interest, Chen Xu declares that she has no conflict of interest, Jun Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuyi Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anita Awino Owino
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yan Gao
    • 4
  • Xue Yan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chen Xu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jun Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.Sino-Africa Joint Research CenterChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Wuhan Environmental Protection BureauWuhanChina

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