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Ecotoxicology

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 213–224 | Cite as

A TME study with the fungicide pyrimethanil combined with different moisture regimes: effects on enchytraeids

  • Cornelia BandowEmail author
  • Ee Ling Ng
  • Rüdiger M. Schmelz
  • José Paulo Sousa
  • Jörg Römbke
Article

Abstract

Today’s ecosystems are influenced by different factors that could evolve into stressors. Effects of pesticides, especially in agricultural areas, may interact with environmental factors, such as soil moisture fluctuation caused by global climate change. In this contribution, two semi-field studies conducted in Germany and Portugal with terrestrial model ecosystems are presented. Their aim was to assess the effects of the fungicide pyrimethanil under different soil moisture levels on Enchytraeidae. In Portugal a no observed effect concentration design was chosen, using two concentration levels: the maximum application rate (MAR) according to the safe use registration within the European Union and five times the MAR (1.82 and 9.09 mg/kg dry soil, respectively). Both concentrations did neither affect the total enchytraeid abundance nor single populations. In Germany an ECx design (effect concentration) was conducted, using 11 concentrations. In general, 14 EC50 values for different combinations of single species, moisture level and sampling date were determined. The strongest effects were found in dry soil, particularly for Fridericia connata (EC50: 3.48 mg/kg dry soil after 8 weeks of exposure). The advantages and challenges of these test designs are discussed with regard to the registration process of pesticides in the European Union. In any case, enchytraeids are suitable test organisms in such higher tier studies for the combined evaluation of chemical and climatic stressors due to their usually high diversity and abundances and their close contact with the soil solution.

Keywords

Pesticide Mesocosm Semi-field Oligochaeta Multivariate analysis Climate change 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The present study was funded by the research funding programme “LOEWE—Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz” of Hesse’s Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and the Arts. It (HA Project No. 155/08-17) is financially supported in the framework of Hessen ModellProjekte, financed with funds of LOEWE - Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz, Förderlinie 3: KMU-Verbundvorhaben (State Offensive for the Development of Scientific and Economic Excellence). Ee Ling Ng was sponsored by an EU grant under the ERASMUS Mundus programme (European Master in Applied Ecology). The test formulation of pyrimethanil was kindly provided by BASF SE. The authors wish to thank Miki Balint for statistical advice.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10646_2015_1581_MOESM1_ESM.docx (121 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 120 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cornelia Bandow
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ee Ling Ng
    • 4
  • Rüdiger M. Schmelz
    • 2
    • 5
  • José Paulo Sousa
    • 6
  • Jörg Römbke
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre BiK-FFrankfurtGermany
  2. 2.ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbHFlörsheimGermany
  3. 3.Department Aquatic EcotoxicologyGoethe University FrankfurtFrankfurtGermany
  4. 4.Future Soils LaboratoryMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Department of Animal Biology, Plant Biology and Ecology, Science FacultyUniversity of A CoruñaCoruñaSpain
  6. 6.CFE-Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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