Ecotoxicology

, Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 2115–2124 | Cite as

Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of wheat grown in Tianjin sewage irrigation area

  • Xiangfeng Zeng
  • Zuwei Wang
  • Jun Wang
  • Jinting Guo
  • Xijuan Chen
  • Jie Zhuang
Article

Abstract

The possible health risks from heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) contamination to the local population through the food chain were evaluated in Tianjin, China, a city with a long history of sewage irrigation. Results showed that the continuous application of wastewater has led to an accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, and 54.5 and 18.25 % soil samples accumulated Cd and Zn in concentrations exceeding the permissible limits in China. Concentrations of heavy metals in wheat grain decreased in the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd, and transfer factors for the six heavy metals showed the trend as Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni. The risk assessment for the six heavy metals through wheat consumption suggests that concentrations of Cr and Cd in some wheat samples exceed their reference oral dose for adults and children. In general, no target hazard quotient value of any individual element was greater than one, which means they are within the safe interval. However, 36.4 and 63.6 % hazard index values for adults and children were greater than one, respectively. The health risk due to the added effects of heavy metals was significant for children and adults, and more attention should be paid tothe potential added threat fromheavy metals to the health of children via dietary intake of wheat in Tianjin.

Keywords

Heavy metals Wheat Human health risk Wastewater irrigation Tianjin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the strategic priority research program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB14020204) and the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 40973078). We thank reviewers for their valuable and constructive comments.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Rowland AP (1986) Chemical analysis. In: Moore PD, Chapman SB (eds) Methods in Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, pp 285–344Google Scholar
  2. Bennett DH, Kastenberg WE, McKone TE (1999) A multimedia multiple pathway risk assessment of atrazine: the impact of age differentiated exposure including joint uncertainty and variability. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 63:185–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. C EPA (1995) Environmental quality standard for soils. Chinese Environmental Protection Administration, China. GB15618-1995Google Scholar
  4. Carbonell G, de Imperial RM, Torrijos M, Delgado M, Rodriguez JA (2011) Effects of municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilizer amendments on soil properties and heavy metals distribution in maize plants (Zea mays L.). Chemosphere 85(10):1614–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang AC, Page AL, Hyun H (1997) Cadmium uptake Swiss for Chard Grown on composted sewage sludge treated plots: plateau or time bomb. J Environ Qual 26:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chien LC, Hung TC, Choang KY, Yeh CY, Meng PJ, Shieh MJ (2002) Daily intake of TBT, Cu, Zn, Cd and As for fishermen in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 285:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chojnacka K, Chojnacki A, Gorecka H, Gorecki H (2005) Bioavailability of heavy metals from polluted soils to plants. Sci Total Environ 337(1):175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cui YJ, Zhu YG, Zhai RH, Chen DY, Huang YZ, Qui Y, Liang JZ (2004) Transfer of metals from near a smelter in Nanjing, China. Environ Int 30:785–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dong WH (2007) Environmental geochemistry of heavy metals in irrigation water and soil of key areas in Tianjin, China. China University of Geosciences Master’s Thesis. 28–42 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MDC, Egwurugwu JN (2007) Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int J Phys Sci 2:112–118Google Scholar
  11. Eriyamremu GE, Asagba SO, Akpoborie IA, Ojeaburu SI (2005) Evaluation of lead and cadmium levels in some commonly consumed vegetables in the Niger-Delta oil area of Nigeria. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 75:278–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hang X, Wang H, Zhou J, Ma C, Du C, Chen X (2009) Risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) in a typical area of the Yangtze River Delta. Environ Pollut 157(8):2542–2549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang M, Zhou S, Sun B, Zhao Q (2008) Heavy metals in wheat grain: assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants in Kunshan, China. Sci Total Environ 405(1):54–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jamali MK, Kazi TG, Arain MB, Afridi HI, Jalbani N, Memon AR, Ansari R, Shah A (2007) The feasibility of using an industrial sewage sludge produce in Pakistan as agricultural fertilizer used for cultivation of Sorghum bicolor L. Arch Agron Soil Sci 53:659–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jamali MK, Kazi TG, Arain MB, Afridi HI, Jalbani N, Memon AR, Ansari R, Shah A (2008) Heavy metals from soil and domestic sewage sludge and their transfer to Sorghum plants. Environ Chem Lett 5(4):209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jiao W, Chen W, Chang AC, Page AL (2012) Environmental risks of trace elements associated with long-term phosphate fertilizers applications: a review. Environ Pollut 168:44–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng Y, Huang Y, Zhu Y (2008) Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ pollut 152(3):686–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khan MU, Malik N, Muhammad S (2013) Human health risk from heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan. Chemosphere 93(10):2230–2238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li P, Wang X, Allinson G, Li X, Xiong X (2009) Risk assessment of heavy metals in soil previously irrigated with industrial wastewater in Shenyang, China. J Hazard Mater 161(1):516–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu WH, Zhao JZ, Ouyang ZY, Soderlund L, Liu GH (2005) Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metals distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environ Int 31:805–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lu Y, Song S, Wang R, Liu Z, Meng J, Sweetman AJ et al (2015) Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China. Environ Int 77:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ma CX, Wang ZR, Gao Q, Jin XL, He S (2010) Heavy metal analysis of winter wheat at each stage in typical sewage irrigation areas of Tianjin. Environ Chem 29(1):44–47 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  23. Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2005) The effect of long-term irrigation using wastewater on heavy metal contents of soils under vegetables in Harare, Zimbabwe. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2007) Uptake of heavy metals by vegetables irrigated using wastewater and the subsequent risks in Harare, Zimbabwe. Phys Chem Earth 32(15):1399–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marković M, Cupać S, Đurović R, Milinović J, Kljajić P (2010) Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morera MT, Echeverría J, Garrido J (2002) Bioavailability of heavy metals in soils amended with sewage sludge. Can J Soil Sci 82:433–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Muchuweti M, Birkett JW, Chinyanga E, Zvauya R, Scrimshaw MD (2006) Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: implications for human health. Agric Ecosyst Environ 112(1):41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Notten MJM, Oosthoek AJP, Rozema J, Aerts R (2005) Heavy metal concentrations in a soil–plant–snail food chain along a terrestrial soil pollution gradient. Environ Pollut 138(1):178–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabu K, Singh AK (2005) Long term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater—a case study. Agric Ecosyst Environ 109:310–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Satarug S, Haswell-Elkins MR, Moore MR (2000) Safe levels of cadmium intake to prevent renal toxicity of human subjects. Br J Nutr 84:791–802Google Scholar
  31. Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshal FM (2006) Heavy metals contamination in vegetables grown in waste water irrigation areas of Varanasi, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 77:311–318Google Scholar
  32. Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshal FM (2007) Heavy metals contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 66:258–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Siebe C (1995) Heavy metal availability to plants in soils irrigated with wastewater from Mexico City. Water Sci Technol 32:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh RP, Agrawal M (2008) Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge. Waste Manage 28(2):347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Singh A, Sharma RK, Etal MA, Marshall FM (2010) Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated vegetables from waste water irrigation area of Varanasi, India. Trop Ecol 51:375–387Google Scholar
  36. Sipter E, Rózsa E, Gruiz K, Tátrai E, Morvai V (2008) Site-specific risk assessment in contaminated vegetable gardens. Chemosphere 71:1301–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tomlison DL, Wilson JG, Harris CR, Jeffrey DW (1980) Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 33(1–4):566–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (2000) Risk-based concentration table. US EPA, Washington D.C, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  39. Us, EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (1986) Guidelines for the health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Fed Reg 51(185):34014–34025Google Scholar
  40. Wang X, Huang G, Tian H, Dong S, Yin H, Cao X (2007) Investigation on dietary nutrition of urban residents in Tianjin from 2000-2004. China J Publ Health 23(10):1245–1249Google Scholar
  41. Wang B, Meng HT, Zhang Z, Gong HY, Jiang W (2010) Heavy metals content and potential Ecological risk assessment in field soil in Tianjin suburbs. Environ Res Test 4:11–15 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  42. Wang X, Sato T, Xing B, Tao S (2005) Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Sci Total Environ 350(1):28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang Y, Qiao M, Liu Y, Zhu Y (2012) Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables from wastewater irrigated area, Beijing-Tianjin city cluster, China. J Environ Sci 24(4):690–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wu GH, Su RX, Li WQ, Zheng HQ (2008) Source and enrichment of heavy metals in sewage-irrigation area soil of Dagu sewage discharge cannel. Environ Sci 29:1693–1698 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  45. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (2007) Integrated Risk Information System. US EPA, Washington D.C, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  46. Young RA (2005) Toxicity profiles: toxicity summary for cadmium, risk assessment information system. University of Tennessee (rais. ornl. Gov/tox/profiles/cadmium.html)Google Scholar
  47. Zhai HQ (2010) Investigation and assessment on heavy metals in soil and vegetables in sewage irrigation areas. Tianjin Normal University Master’s Thesis (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. Zhao Q, Wang Y, Cao Y, Chen A, Ren M, Ge Y, Li L (2014) Potential health risks of heavy metals in cultivated topsoil and grain, including correlations with human primary liver, lung and gastric cancer, in Anhui province, Eastern China. Sci Total Environ 470:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zheng N, Wang Q, Zhang X, Zheng D, Zhang Z, Zhang S (2007) Population health risk due to dietary intake of heavy metals in the industrial area of Huludao city, China. Sci Total Environ 387(1):96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiangfeng Zeng
    • 1
    • 4
  • Zuwei Wang
    • 2
  • Jun Wang
    • 3
  • Jinting Guo
    • 1
    • 4
  • Xijuan Chen
    • 1
  • Jie Zhuang
    • 5
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied EcologyChinese Academy of SciencesShenyangChina
  2. 2.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Resource and Water EnvironmentTianjin Normal UniversityTianjinChina
  3. 3.Center for Environmental BiotechnologyThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  4. 4.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil ScienceThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations