Advertisement

Ecotoxicology

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 1213–1220 | Cite as

Genetics and mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin in the house fly, Musca domestica L., from Pakistan

  • Hafiz Azhar Ali KhanEmail author
  • Waseem Akram
  • Muhammad Saleem Haider
Article

Abstract

Deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) has widely been used against the house fly, Musca domestica, a pest found in livestock facilities worldwide. Although, cases of both metabolic and physiological resistance to deltamethrin have been reported in different parts of the world, no studies have been reported to characterize this resistance in house flies from Pakistan. In the present study, we investigated a field strain of house flies for potential to develop resistance to deltamethrin. Also, its stability, possible mechanisms and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides. Before the selection experiments, the field strain showed 8.41-, 3.65-, 8.39-, 2.68-, 19.17- and 5.96-fold resistance to deltamethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos and spinosad, respectively, compared with the reference strain (Lab-susceptible). Continuous selection of the field strain (Delta-SEL) with deltamethrin for six generations (G1–G6) in the laboratory increased the resistance ratio to 176.34 after bioassay at G7. The Delta-SEL strain was reared for the next four generations without exposure to deltamethrin and bioassayed at G11 which revealed that the resistance was stable. The Delta-SEL strain at G7 showed cross-resistance to all other insecticides except spinosad, when compared to the bioassays before the selection experiment (G1). Crosses between Delta-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to deltamethrin. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one factor. Moreover, synergism studies with the enzyme inhibitors PBO and DEF reduced the resistance to deltamethrin in the selected strain up to 2.51- and 2.19-fold, respectively, which revealed that the resistance was possibly due to microsomal oxidase and esterase activity. It is concluded that the resistance to deltamethrin was autosomal and incompletely dominant. The high cross-resistance of bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and profenofos in the Delta-SEL strain suggests that other insecticides would be necessary to counter the resistance. These results are therefore suggestive for implications in the management of insecticide resistance in house flies.

Keywords

Insecticide resistance Dairy pest management Resistance management Pyrethroid 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to Dr. RJ Whitworth, Kansas State University, USA, for critically reviewing the manuscript and for English editing. Financial support from the University of the Punjab (2013–14) is gratefully acknowledged.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abbas N, Khan HAA, Shad SA (2014a) Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission. Parasitol Res 113:1343–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbas N, Khan HAA, Shad SA (2014b) Resistance of the house fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) to lambda-cyhalothrin: mode of inheritance, realized heritability, and cross-resistance to other insecticides. Ecotoxicol 23:791–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Sayyed AH, Crickmore N, Saleem MA (2007) Genetics and mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin in a field population of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Manag Sci 63:1002–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balasubramani V, Sayyed AH, Crickmore N (2008) Genetic characterization of resistance to deltamethrin in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from India. J Econ Entomol 101:1911–1918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouvier J, Bueá R, Boivin T, Boudinhon L, Beslay D, Sauphanor B (2001) Deltamethrin resistance in the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): inheritance and number of genes involved. Heredity 87:456–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crow JF (1957) Genetics of insect resistance to chemicals. Annu Rev Entomol 2:227–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Daly JC, Fisk JH (1992) Inheritance of metabolic resistance to the synthetic pyrethroids in Australian Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Bull Entomol Res 82:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dong K, Scott JG (1991) Neuropharmacology and genetics of kdr-type resistance in German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Pestic Biochem Physiol 46:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Finney DJ (1971) Probit Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 3-1971 Google Scholar
  10. Huang SJ, Xu JF, Han ZJ (2006) Baseline toxicity data of insecticides against the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) and a comparison of resistance monitoring methods. Intl J Pest Manag 52:209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ishaaya I, Casida JE (1980) Properties and toxicological significance of esterases hydrolyzing permethrin and cypermethrin in Trichoplusia ni larval gut and integument. Pest Biochem Physiol 14:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jamroz RC, Guerrero FD, Kammlah DM, Kunz SE (1998) Role of the kdr and super-kdr sodium channel mutations in pyrethroid resistance: correlation of allelic frequency to resistance level in wild and laboratory populations of horn flies (Haematobia irritans). Insect Biochem Mol Biol 28:1031–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaufman PE, Nunez SC, Mann RS, Christopher GJ, Scharfa E (2010) Nicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticide resistance in houseflies (Diptera: Muscidae) collected from Florida dairies. Pest Manag Sci 66:290–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khan HAA (2014) Insecticide resistance, survival fitness and chemical based management strategies of house fly Musca domestica L. from dairies of Punjab, Pakistan. PhD thesis, B. Z. University, Multan, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  15. Khan HAA, Akram W (2014) The effect of temperature on the toxicity of insecticides against Musca domestica L.: implications for the effective management of diarrhea. PLoS One 9:e95636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khan HAA, Akram W, Shad SA (2013a) Resistance to conventional insecticides in Pakistani populations of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential ectoparasite of dairy animals. Ecotoxicol 22:522–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khan HAA, Akram W, Shad SA, Razaq M, Naeem-Ullah U, Zia K (2013b) A cross sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practices related to house flies among dairy farmers in Punjab. Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9:18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khan HAA, Akram W, Shad SA (2014) Genetics, cross-resistance and mechanism of resistance to spinosad in a resistant strain of Musca domestica L. Acta Trop 130:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khan HAA, Akram W, Shehzad K, Shaalan EAS (2011) First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), from Pakistan. Parasit Vectors 4:146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kristensen M, Knorr M, Spencer AG, Jespersen JB (2000) Selection and reversion of azamethiphos resistance in a field population of the housefly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), and underlying biochemical mechanisms. J Econ Entomol 93:1788–1795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lande R (1981) The minimum number of genes contributing to quantitative variation between and within populations. Genetics 99:541–553Google Scholar
  22. Litchfield JT, Wilcoxon F (1949) A simplified method of evaluating dose effect experiments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 99:99–103Google Scholar
  23. Liu NN, Yue X (2001) Genetics of pyrethroid resistance in a strain (ALHF) of house flies (Diptera : Muscidae). Pestic Biochem Physiol 70:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pap L, Farkas R (1994) Monitoring of resistance of insecticides in housefly (Musca domestica) populations in Hungary. Pestic Sci 40:245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Plapp FW Jr (1976) Biochemical genetics of insecticide resistance. Annu Rev Entomol 21:179–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qiu X, Li M, Luo H, Fu T (2007) Molecular analysis of resistance in a deltamethrin-resistant strain of Musca domestica from China. Pest Biochem Physiol 89:146–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Raghavendra K, Verma V, Srivastava HC, Gunasekaran K, Sreehari U, Dash AP (2010) Persistence of DDT, malathion & deltamethrin resistance in Anopheles culicifacies after their sequential withdrawal from indoor residual spraying in Surat district, India. Indian J Med Res 132:260–264Google Scholar
  28. Raymond M, Pasteur N, Georghiou P (1987) Inheritance of chlorpyriphos resistance in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and estimation of the number of genes involved. Heredity 58:351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Roush RT, Daly JC (1990) The role of population genetics in resistance research and management. In: Roush RT, Tabashnik BE (eds) Pesticide Resistance in Arthropods. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 97–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sayyed AH, Wright DJ (2001) Cross-resistance and inheritance of resistance to Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) from lowland Malaysia. Pest Manag Sci 57:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sayyed AH, Wright DJ (2006) Genetics and evidence for an esterase-associated mechanism of resistance to indoxacarb in a field population of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Pest Manag Sci 62:1045–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sayyed AH, Attique MNR, Khaliq A, Wright DJ (2005) Inheritance of resistance and cross resistance deltamethrin in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Pakistan. Pest Manag Sci 61:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sayyed AH, Pathan AK, Faheem U (2010) Cross-resistance, genetics and stability of resistance to deltamethrin in a population of Chrysoperla carnea from Multan, Pakistan. Pest Biochem Physiol 98:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shi J, Zhang L, Gao X (2011) Characterization of spinosad resistance in the housefly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Pest Manag Sci 67:335–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shono T (1985) Pyrethroid resistance: importance of the kdr-type mechanism. Pestic Sci 10:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shono T, Scott JG (2003) Spinosad resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica, is due to a recessive factor on autosome 1. Pestic Biochem Physiol 75:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stone BF (1968) A formula of determining degree of dominance in cases of monofactorial inheritance of resistance to chemicals. Bull. WHO 38:325–326Google Scholar
  38. Tabashnik BE (1991) Determining of the mode of inheritance of pesticide resistance with backcross experiments. J Econ Entomol 84:703–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Waseem Akram
    • 2
  • Muhammad Saleem Haider
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations