, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 1213–1220 | Cite as

Genetics and mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin in the house fly, Musca domestica L., from Pakistan

  • Hafiz Azhar Ali KhanEmail author
  • Waseem Akram
  • Muhammad Saleem Haider


Deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) has widely been used against the house fly, Musca domestica, a pest found in livestock facilities worldwide. Although, cases of both metabolic and physiological resistance to deltamethrin have been reported in different parts of the world, no studies have been reported to characterize this resistance in house flies from Pakistan. In the present study, we investigated a field strain of house flies for potential to develop resistance to deltamethrin. Also, its stability, possible mechanisms and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides. Before the selection experiments, the field strain showed 8.41-, 3.65-, 8.39-, 2.68-, 19.17- and 5.96-fold resistance to deltamethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos and spinosad, respectively, compared with the reference strain (Lab-susceptible). Continuous selection of the field strain (Delta-SEL) with deltamethrin for six generations (G1–G6) in the laboratory increased the resistance ratio to 176.34 after bioassay at G7. The Delta-SEL strain was reared for the next four generations without exposure to deltamethrin and bioassayed at G11 which revealed that the resistance was stable. The Delta-SEL strain at G7 showed cross-resistance to all other insecticides except spinosad, when compared to the bioassays before the selection experiment (G1). Crosses between Delta-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to deltamethrin. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one factor. Moreover, synergism studies with the enzyme inhibitors PBO and DEF reduced the resistance to deltamethrin in the selected strain up to 2.51- and 2.19-fold, respectively, which revealed that the resistance was possibly due to microsomal oxidase and esterase activity. It is concluded that the resistance to deltamethrin was autosomal and incompletely dominant. The high cross-resistance of bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and profenofos in the Delta-SEL strain suggests that other insecticides would be necessary to counter the resistance. These results are therefore suggestive for implications in the management of insecticide resistance in house flies.


Insecticide resistance Dairy pest management Resistance management Pyrethroid 



The authors are thankful to Dr. RJ Whitworth, Kansas State University, USA, for critically reviewing the manuscript and for English editing. Financial support from the University of the Punjab (2013–14) is gratefully acknowledged.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Waseem Akram
    • 2
  • Muhammad Saleem Haider
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

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