, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 1141–1151 | Cite as

Demonstration of an adaptive response to preconditioning Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) to sublethal doses of spinosad: a hormetic-dose response

  • Youhui Gong
  • Baoyun Xu
  • Youjun Zhang
  • Xiwu Gao
  • Qingjun Wu


Sublethal doses of some insecticides have been reported to either stimulate or reduce the survival and fecundity of insects. Many sublethal-effect studies have been conducted after exposure of only one generation to sublethal insecticides, and there is little information about the sublethal effects on insects after long-term exposure to sublethal insecticides. In this study, changes in biological characteristics were investigated in spinosad-susceptible (Spin-S) and sublethal-spinosad-treated (Spin-Sub) strains of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) after exposure to their corresponding sublethal concentrations of spinosad. The results showed that for the Spin-S strain, the LC10 concentration of spinosad slightly affected the biotic fitness both in parents and offspring of F. occidentalis. The LC25 concentration of spinosad prolonged the development time, reduced the fecundity, and significantly reduced the intrinsic rate of increase, the net reproductive rate and the finite rate of increase in the Spin-S strain. However, the negative effects were not as pronounced in the offspring (F1 generation) as in the parent generation. For the Spin-Sub strain, the LC10 and LC25 concentrations of spinosad had little negative effect on the development and fecundity, and no significant difference was found between the effects of the LC10 and LC25 treatments on the Spin-Sub strain. The Spin-Sub strain exhibited a shorter developmental time, and larger intrinsic rates of increase and net reproductive rates, compared with the corresponding treatments of the Spin-S strain. These findings combined with our previous studies suggest that the biotic fitness increased in the Spin-Sub strain and the strain became more adaptable to sublethal doses of spinosad, compared with the Spin-S strain. Physiological and biochemical adaptation may contribute to these changes after long treatment times at sublethal doses.


Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) Spinosad Sublethal effect Adaptation Hormesis 



Lethal concentration to 10 % of the population


Lethal concentration to 25 % of the population




Intrinsic rate of increase


Net reproductive rate


Finite rate of increase


Generation time


Pre-oviposition period of adult stage of female


Total pre-oviposition period of female counted from birth



We thank Vicki Stewart (Buena Vista University, Storm Lake, IA 50588, United States) for copyediting the manuscript. This work was funded by Grants from the National Science and Technology Support Plan (2012BAD19B06), the Natural Science Foundation of China (31371965), Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (201103026), Beijing Leafy Vegetables Innovation Team of Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System (blvt-15), and Beijing Key laboratory for Pest Control and Sustainable Cultivation of Vegetables.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Youhui Gong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Baoyun Xu
    • 1
  • Youjun Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiwu Gao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qingjun Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Vegetables and FlowersChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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