Competition between toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa and its ecological implication
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The frequency of toxic cyanobacterial blooms has increased in recent decades, but the factors that regulate the dominance of toxin-producing cyanobacteria over non-toxin-producing strains of one species are still obscure. This study examined the effects of temperature, light intensity, nitrate and phosphate on the dominance of MC-producing and non-MC-producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa in monoculture and co-culture experiments. In the monoculture experiments, growth rates of the non-MC-producing strain were higher than those of the MC-producing strain under the same growth conditions. However, at the end of the co-culture experiments, the MC-producing strain became surprisingly dominant in all treatments except when treated with extreme low phosphate concentrations. Higher temperatures and nutrient levels can shift the dominance more quickly towards the toxic strain. The dominance may be explained by allelopathic interactions through allelochemicals and other secondary metabolites, but not MC. Environmental factors such as extremely low phosphate content may exert an indirect effect on strain dominance by changing the production of allelochemicals. Our findings highlight the complications in predicting competitive outcome for cyanobacterial strains in natural environments.
KeywordsMicrocystis Microcystin Competition Dominance Environmental factors
This research was supported by the Grant (No. 31070416) from National Science Foundation of China (NSFC), and the Grant from Guangdong Province for leading talent scientists to Dr Henri Dumont. We thank Leanne A Pearson and other colleagues in University of New South Wales, Australia for commenting and correcting the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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