Morphological alterations in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1766 (Rotifera: Monogononta) caused by vinclozolin chronic exposure
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Vinclozolin (VZ) is a dicarboximide fungicide widely used on fruits, vegetables and wines, effective against fungi plagues. In this study we characterized the effects of VZ using a 4-day reproductive chronic assay with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. The assay included observations of several features of asexual and sexual reproduction. Our results indicate that VZ: (a) increased asexual and sexual reproduction, (b) caused severe abnormality in females and (c) these abnormalities were inherited by sexual and asexual reproduction. At 1.2 mg/L three abnormal females were found out of 457 total females (0.66 %). This low percentage is consistent and reproducible according to further analysis, where we increased the number of replicates and total females exposed to 1.2 mg/L of VZ, and found 18 abnormal females out of 2868 total females (0.63 % abnormality). Interestingly, abnormal females found at 5.6 mg/L VZ exposure, were able to show mating behavior. Our results suggest that VZ behaves as a strong endocrine disruptor whose effects show the characteristic inverted-U-shape exposure concentration response curve regarding the intrinsic population increase and the percentage of abnormalities as endpoints.
KeywordsEndocrine disruption Abnormal rotifers Transgenerational effects Hormesis Fungicide Freshwater invertebrates
J. A.-F. acknowledges the support of the CONACyT (Mexico´s National Council for Science and Technology) Scholarship Number 266358. Special thanks to Shantal Suárez-Mercado for helping us to obtain pictures and video recordings, and taking notes in all experiments. Thanks to Mario Alberto Arzate-Cárdenas for critical review of the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors report no declarations of interest.
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