Field realistic doses of pesticide imidacloprid reduce bumblebee pollen foraging efficiency
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Bumblebees and other pollinators provide a vital ecosystem service for the agricultural sector. Recent studies however have suggested that exposure to systemic neonicotinoid insecticides in flowering crops has sub-lethal effects on the bumblebee workforce, and hence in reducing queen production. The mechanism behind reduced nest performance, however, remains unclear. Here we use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to test whether exposure to a low, field realistic dose (0.7 ppb in sugar water and 6 ppb in pollen) of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, reduces worker foraging efficiency. Whilst the nectar foraging efficiency of bees treated with imidacloprid was not significantly different than that of control bees, treated bees brought back pollen less often than control bees (40 % of trips vs 63 % trips, respectively) and, where pollen was collected, treated bees brought back 31 % less pollen per hour than controls. This study demonstrates that field-realistic doses of these pesticides substantially impacts on foraging ability of bumblebee workers when collecting pollen, and we suggest that this provides a causal mechanism behind reduced queen production in imidacloprid exposed colonies.
KeywordsBombus Neonicotinoid RFID technology Pollen collection
We would like to thank Aaron Hamilton and Stephan Hamilton for their assistance in data collection. We would also like to thank Jeroen Minderman and Timothy Paine for their advice on analysis and James Weir for his technical support. Finally we would like to thank the Natural Environment Research Council and the Economic and Social Research Council for their financial support.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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