, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 609–617 | Cite as

Distribution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of toxic heavy metals and metalloid in surface water of lakes in Daqing Heilongjiang Province, China

  • Xiaodi Wang
  • Shuying ZangEmail author


It is necessary to estimate heavy metal concentrations and risk in surface water for understanding the heavy metal contaminations and for sustainable protection of ecosystems and human health. To investigate the anthropogenic contribution of heavy metal accumulation surrounding an industrial city in China, the concentrations of six heavy metals, including mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) were examined; from four different regions of Daqing in autumn 2011 and winter 2012. The results showed heavy metals distributed in the industrial area at concentrations relatively higher than those in other three areas, while concentrations in the farming area and the protected area were lower. The heavy metal concentrations of water bodies in all areas, except those for Hg and As, Cu, Pb and Cr were lower than the cutoff values for the Class I water quality that was set as the highest standard to protect the national nature reserves. While Hg and As of lakes in industry region had a higher level than those in the agriculture and landscape water, the lowest allowed. The concentrations of all the heavy metals in winter were higher than in the autumn. Cu had a higher ecological risks level to freshwater organisms. The discharge of urban sewage and industrial wastewater might be a major pollutant source, thus these sources should identified before remediation efforts. Efforts are needed to protect the lakes from pollution and also to reduce environmental health risks. This study and the valuable data will pave the way for future research on these Lakes in Daqing.


Heavy metals Daqing lakes Ecological risk Toxic pollutants Land use 



This research was financially supported by the key National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41030743), the Science and Technology Innovative Programs Foundation of Higher Education of Heilongjiang Province of China (No. 2010td10), and the key Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province of China (No. ZD201308).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Bai JH, Cui BS, Chen B, Zhang KJ, Deng W, Gao HF, Xiao R (2011) Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from a typical plateau lake wetland, China. Ecol Model 222:301–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blus LJ, Henny CJ, Hoffman DJ, Sileo L, Audet DJ (1999) Persistence of high lead concentrations and associated effects in tundra swans captured near a mining and smelting complex in northern Idaho. Ecotoxicology 8:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calisi A, Lionetto MG, Sanchez-Hernandez JC, Schettino T (2011) Effect of heavy metal exposure on blood haemoglobin concentration and methemoglobin percentage in Lumbricus terrestris. Ecotoxicology 20:847–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng SP, Gross W, Karrenbrock F, Thoennessen M (2002) Efficiency of constructed wetlands in decontamination of water polluted by heavy metals. Ecol Eng 18:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chow TE, Gaines KF, Hodgson ME, Wilson MD (2005) Habitat and exposure modeling for ecological risk assessment: a case study for the raccoon on the Savanah River Site. Ecol Model 189:151–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guo WH, Liu XB, Liu ZJ, Li GF (2010) Pollution and potential ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in the sediments around Dongjiang Harbor, Tianjin. International Society for Environmental Information Sciences 2010 Annual Conference (ISEIS). Procedia Environ Sci 2:729–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. He M, Wang Z, Tang H (1998) The chemical, toxicological and ecological studies in assessing the heavy metal pollution in Le An River, China. Water Res 32(2):510–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hope BK (2006) An examination of ecological risk assessment and management practices. Environ Int 32(8):983–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ji S, Liu EF, Zhu YX, Hu SY, Qu WC (2007) Distribution and chemical fractionation of heavy metals in recent sediments from Lake Taihu, China. Hydrobiologia 581(1):141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jørgensen SE (1993) Removal of heavy metals from compost and soil by ecotechnological methods. Ecol Eng 2:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kamala-Kannan S, Prabhu Dass Batvari B, Lee KJ, Kannan N, Krishnamoorthy R, Shanthi K, Jayaprakash M (2008) Assessment of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) in water, sediment and seaweed (Ulva lactuca) in the Pulicat Lake, South East India. Chemosphere 71:1233–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kennish MJ (1992) Ecology of estuaries: anthropogenic effects. CRC Press Inc., Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim J, Lee H, Koo T (2008) Heavy-metal concentrations in three owl species from Korea. Ecotoxicology 17:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kishe MA, Machiwa JF (2003) Distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Environ Int 28(7):619–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kong XZ, He W, Qiu N, He QS, Wang Y, Ouyang HL, Xu FL (2011) Assessing acute ecological risks of heavy metals to freshwater organisms by species sensitivity distributions. Chin Environ Sci 31(9):1555–1562Google Scholar
  16. Lee YG, An KG, Ha PH, Lee KY, Kang JH, Cha SM, Cho KH, Lee YS, Chang IS, Kim KW, Kimj JH (2009) Decadal and seasonal scale changes of an artificial lake environment after blocking tidal flows in the Yeongsan Estuary region, Korea. Sci Total Environ 407:6063–6072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lefcort H, Vancura J, Lider EL (2010) 75 years after mining ends stream insect diversity is still affected by heavy metals. Ecotoxicology 19:1416–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li L, Li FS, Xiong DQ, Song CY (2006) Heavy metal contamination and their distribution in different size fractions of the surficial sediment of Haihe River. China Environ Geol 50(3):431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lin CY, He MC, Zhou YX, Guo W, Yang ZF (2008) Distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in sediment of the Second Songhua River, China. Environ Monit Assess 137(1):329–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu JL, Li YL, Zhang B, Cao JL, Cao ZJ, Domagalski J (2009) Ecological risk of heavy metals in sediments of the Luan River source water. Ecotoxicology 18:748–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lu CX, Cheng JM (2011) Speciation of heavy metals in the sediments from different eutrophic lakes of China. The Second SREE Conference on Chemical Engineering Procedia Engineering, vol 18, pp 318–323Google Scholar
  22. Nguyen HL, Leermakers M, Osán J, Tfrfk S, Baeyens W (2005) Heavy metals in Lake Balaton: water column, suspended matter, sediment and biota. Sci Total Environ 340:213–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Niu HY, Deng WJ, Wu QH, Chen XG (2009) Potential toxic risk of heavy metals from sediment of the Pearl River in South China. J Environ Sci 21:1053–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ozmen H, Kulahci F, Cukurovali A, Dogru M (2004) Concentrations of heavy metal and radioactivity in surface water and sediment of Hazar Lake (Elazig, Turkey). Chemosphere 55(3):401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peng XH, Ni SJ, Zhang CJ, Wang QT, Fang M (2007) X-ray fluorescence analysis of industrial coal and study on its heavy metals pollution. Ecol Environ 16(3):883–886Google Scholar
  26. Posthuma L, Traas TP, Suter GW (2002) General introduction to species sensitivity distributions [M]. In: Posthuma L, Traas TP, Suter GW (eds) Species sensitivity distributions in ecotoxicology. Lewis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 3–9Google Scholar
  27. Qian Y, Zheng MH, Gao L, Zhang B, Liu W, Jiao W, Zhao X, Xiao K (2005) Heavy metal contamination and its environmental risk assessment in surface sediments from Lake Dongting, People’s Republic of China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 75(1):204–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Samecka CA, Kempers AJ (2001) Concentrations of heavy metals and plant nutrients in water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes of anthropogenic lakes (former open cut brown coal mines) differing in stage of acidification. Sci Total Environ 281(1):87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schuwerack PM, Lewis JW, Jones P (2001) The potential use of the South African River Crab, Potamonautes warreni, as a bioindicator species for heavy metal contamination. Ecotoxicology 10:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Srinivasa Reddy M, Basha S, Joshi HV, Ramachandraiah G (2005) Seasonal distribution and contamination levels of total PHCs, PAHs and heavy metals in coastal waters of the Alang-Sosiya ship scrapping yard, Gulf of Cambay, India. Chemosphere 61:1587–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA) (1995) Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water (EQSSW) (GB3838-2002). China Environmental Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. Sundaray SK, Nayak BB, Lin S, Bhatta D (2011) Geochemical speciation and risk assessment of heavy metals in the river estuarine sediments—a case study: Mahanadi basin, India. J Hazard Mater 186:1837–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tang WZ, Shan BQ, Zhang H, Mao ZP (2010) Heavy metal sources and associated risk in response to agricultural intensification in the estuarine sediments of Chaohu Lake Valley, East China. J Hazard Mater 176:945–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Uluturhan E, Kucuksezgin F (2007) Heavy metal contaminants in Red Pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) tissues from the Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey. Water Res 41:1185–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Varol M, Şen B (2012) Assessment of nutrient and heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments of the upper Tigris River, Turkey. Catena 92:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xue B, Yao SC, Xia WL (2007) Environmental changes in Lake Taihu during the past century as recorded in sediment cores. Hydrobiologia 581(1):117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang ZF, Wang Y, Shen ZY, Niu JF, Tang ZW (2009) Distribution and speciation of heavy metals in sediments from the mainstream, tributaries, and lakes of the Yangtze River catchment of Wuhan, China. J Hazard Mater 166:1186–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yi YJ, Yang ZF, Zhang SH (2011) Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. Environ Pollut 159:2575–2585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zeng F, Xiao H, Zhou W (2007) Spatial and temporal variations and their source analysis of copper, lead and zinc in riverwaters and sediments of the Le’an River (in Chinese). Res Environ Sci 20(6):14–20Google Scholar
  40. Zhang MY, Cui LJ, Sheng LX, Wang YF (2009) Distribution and enrichment of heavy metals among sediments, water body and plants in Hengshuihu Wetland of Northern China. Ecol Eng 35:563–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang HG, Cui BS, Zhang KJ (2011) Heavy metal distribution of natural and reclaimed tidal riparian wetlands in south estuary, China. J Environ Sci 23(12):1937–1946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang GS, Liu DY, Wu HF, Chen LL, Han QX (2012) Heavy metal contamination in the marine organisms in Yantai coast, northern Yellow Sea of China. Ecotoxicology 21:1726–1733CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Monitoring of Geographic Environment, College of Heilongjiang ProvinceHarbin Normal UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations