, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 433–445 | Cite as

In situ exposure history modulates the molecular responses to carbamate fungicide Tattoo in bivalve mollusk

  • Halina I. Falfushynska
  • Lesya L. Gnatyshyna
  • Oksana B. StoliarEmail author


The aim of the present study was the investigation of the effect of in situ exposure history on the responses of freshwater mussels to thiocarbamate fungicide. Male bivalve mollusks Anodonta anatina (Unionidae) from polluted (A) and unpolluted (F) sites were subjected to 14 days of exposure to fungicide Tattoo (mixture of propamocarb and mancozeb, 91 μg L−1). When unexposed mussels were compared, chronic effect of toxic environment in site A was confirmed by oxidative stress indices (high levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and oxyradical production, low level of total glutathione (GSH)), genotoxicity (high levels of DNA-strand breaks and caspase-3 activity in digestive gland), and cytotoxicity (low lysosomal membrane stability in hemocytes), elevated vitellogenin-like proteins (Vtg-LP) concentration in gonads, high levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, metallothionein (MT)-bound metals (MT-Me) and MT-related thiol (MT-SH), and low ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in digestive gland. The major differences in the responses of the two exposed groups were related to antioxidant defense and MT: in the group A, prominent oxidative stress response with the participation of MT-SH and GSH in the gills, EROD activation, but decrease of MT-Me level was shown, whereas in group F exposure provoked the elevation of MT-Me, caspase-3 and Vtg-LP values. Carbamate did not cause cholinesterase depletion and cytotoxicity. However, genotoxic and pro-oxidant effects (increased levels of hemocytes with micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities, DNA-strand breaks and oxyradical in digestive gland), were common responses for both the exposed groups.


Bivalve mollusk Thiocarbamate In situ exposure history Metallothionein Oxidative stress Toxicity 



This work was Granted by Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine and State Fund of Fundamental Research (Ukrainian-Hungarian (M/25-2009, M/25-2011), the application-oriented project of Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sport of Ukraine # 118B; R&D Project GP/F32/025 # F32/202-2011, and partly supported by West-Ukrainian BioMedical Research Center. The authors are grateful Post-graduate student O. Turta, students O. Goryn, I. Gricay, M. Zhuk, H. Klantca, State Agency of environment protection and State Agency of Fishery Supervision in Ternopil Region for the technical assistance, to Global Edico and Dr B. Pechenyak for the linguistic and phraseological improvement of this manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Halina I. Falfushynska
    • 1
  • Lesya L. Gnatyshyna
    • 1
  • Oksana B. Stoliar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyTernopil National Pedagogical UniversityTernopilUkraine

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