Advertisement

Ecotoxicology

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1487–1499 | Cite as

Mercury in the Great Lakes region: bioaccumulation, spatiotemporal patterns, ecological risks, and policy

  • David C. Evers
  • James G. Wiener
  • Niladri Basu
  • R. A. Bodaly
  • Heather A. Morrison
  • Kathryn A. Williams
Article

Abstract

This special issue examines bioaccumulation and risks of methylmercury in food webs, fish and wildlife in the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America, and explores mercury policy in the region and elsewhere in the United States and Canada. A total of 35 papers emanated from a bi-national synthesis of multi-media data from monitoring programs and research investigations on mercury in aquatic and terrestrial biota, a 3-year effort involving more than 170 scientists and decision-makers from 55 different universities, non-governmental organizations, and governmental agencies. Over 290,000 fish mercury data points were compiled from monitoring programs and research investigations. The findings from this scientific synthesis indicate that (1) mercury remains a pollutant of major concern in the Great Lakes region, (2) that the scope and intensity of the problem is greater than previously recognized and (3) that after decades of declining mercury levels in fish and wildlife concentrations are now increasing in some species and areas. While the reasons behind these shifting trends require further study, they also underscore the need to identify information gaps and expand monitoring efforts to better track progress. This will be particularly important as new pollution prevention measures are implemented, as global sources increase, and as the region faces changing environmental conditions.

Keywords

Laurentian Great Lakes Mercury Monitoring Spatiotemporal trends Fish Wildlife 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Compilation, synthesis, and interpretation of the regional data reported in this special issue were supported in part by the Great Lakes Commission, though a Great Lakes Air Deposition (GLAD) Program grant to the Biodiversity Research Institute. JGW was supported by the University of Wisconsin System Distinguished Professors Program and the UW-L Foundation during preparation of this manuscript. We are grateful to the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse and the University of Michigan for hosting the project workshops. We thank ESRI for their donations of software, which facilitated the compilation of data at the Biodiversity Research Institute and the subsequent analysis for several manuscripts. This synthesis would not have possible without the sharing of mercury data by state, provincial, and federal agencies and by scientists in academic and nongovernmental organizations. We thank Madeline Turnquist for assistance with figures and for constructive comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. Thank you Ed Swain (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency) for introducing the idea of a regional mercury synthesis effort for the Great Lakes with Jon Dettling (Great Lakes Commission). This special issue is dedicated to the memory of Gerald Keeler and the many great contributions he made toward better understanding mercury in the aerosphere.

References

  1. Åkerblom S, Nilsson M, Huser B, Yu J, Ranneby B, Johansson K (2011) Temporal trends and deviations from background mercury concentrations in Swedish freshwater fish (abstract). 10th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, Halifax, Nova Scotia, July 24–29, 2011. http://www.mercury2011.org/program-g15i. Accessed 5 August 2011
  2. Allen T, Southwick R (2008) Sportfishing in America: an economic engine and conservation powerhouse. American Sportfishing Association, Alexandria, VA, 12 pp http://www.asafishing.org/images/statistics/resources/SIA_2008.pdf. Accessed 2 August 2011
  3. Anderson HA, Hanrahan LP, Smith A, Draheim L, Kanarek M, Olsen J (2004) The role of sport-fish consumption advisories in mercury risk communication: a 1998–1999 12-state survey of women age 18–45. Environ Res 95:315–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babiarz C, Hoffmann S, Wieben A, Hurley J, Andren A, Shafer M, Armstrong D (2011) Watershed and discharge influences on the phase distribution and tributary loading of total mercury and methylmercury into Lake Superior. Environ Pollut (in press)Google Scholar
  5. Basu N, Head J (2010) Mammalian wildlife as complementary models in environmental neurotoxicology. Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:114–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benoit JM, Gilmour C, Heyes A, Mason RP, Miller C (2003) Geochemical and biological controls over methylmercury production and degradation in aquatic ecosystems. In: Chai Y, Braids OC (eds), Biogeochemistry of Environmentally Important Trace Elements. American Chemical Society (ACS Symposium Series no. 835), Washington DC, pp 262–297Google Scholar
  7. Berndt ME, Bavin TK (2011) Methylmercury and dissolved organic carbon relationships in a wetland-rich watershed impacted by elevated sulfate from mining. Environ Pollut (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.006
  8. Bhavsar SP, Gewurtz SB, McGoldrick DJ, Keir MJ, Backus SM (2010) Changes in mercury levels in Great Lakes fish between 1970s and 2007. Environ Sci Technol 44:3273–3279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhavsar SP, Awad E, Mahon CG, Petro S (2011) Great Lakes fish consumption advisories: is mercury a concern? Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0731-0
  10. Biodiversity Research Institute (2011) Integration multimedia measurements of mercury in the Great Lakes region. http://www.briloon.org/oae/the-science-of-bri/mercury-in-the-environment/integrating-multimedia-measurements-of-mercury-in-the-great-lakes-region. Accessed 23 August 2011
  11. Burgess NM, Meyer MW (2008) Methylmercury exposure associated with reduced productivity in common loons. Ecotoxicology 17:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cain A, Morgan JT, Brooks N (2011) Mercury policy in the Great Lakes basin: past successes and future opportunities. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0764-4
  13. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) (2004) Blood mercury levels in young children and childbearing-aged women—United States, 1999–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 53(43):1018–1020Google Scholar
  14. Chasar LC, Scudder BC, Stewart AR, Bell AH, Aiken GR (2009) Mercury cycling in stream ecosystems. 3. Trophic dynamics and methylmercury bioaccumulation. Environ Sci Technol 43:2733–2739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen C, Kamman N, Williams J, Bugge D, Taylor V, Jackson B, Miller E (2011) Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America). Environ Pollut (in press)Google Scholar
  16. Clarkson TW, Magos L (2006) The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol 36:609–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cole DC, Kearney J, Sanin LH, Leblanc A, Weber JP (2004) Blood mercury levels among Ontario anglers and sport-fish eaters. Environ Res 95:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cristol DA, Smith FM, Varian-Ramos CW, Watts BD (2011) Mercury levels of Nelson’s and saltmarsh sparrows at wintering grounds in Virginia. Ecotoxicology (in press). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0710-5
  19. Denkenberger JS, Driscoll CT, Branfireun BA, Eckley CS, Cohen M, Selvendiran P (2011) A synthesis of rates and controls on elemental mercury evasion in the Great Lakes basin. Environ Pollut (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.007
  20. Dove A, Hill B, Klawunn P, Waltho J, Backus S, McCrea RC (2011) Spatial distribution and trends of total mercury in waters of the Great Lakes and connecting channels using an improved sampling technique. Environ Pollut (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.004
  21. Drevnick PE, Engstrom DR, Driscoll CT, Swain EB, Balogh SJ, Kamman NC, Long DT, Muir DGC, Parsons MJ, Rolfhus KR, Rossmann R (2011) Spatial and temporal patterns of mercury accumulation in lacustrine sediments across the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Environ Pollut (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.05.025
  22. Driscoll CT, Blette V, Yan C, Schofield CL, Munson R, Holsapple J (1995) The role of dissolved organic carbon in the chemistry and bioavailability of mercury in remote Adirondack lakes. Water Air Soil Pollut 80:499–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Driscoll CT, Han YJ, Chen CY, Evers DC, Lambert KF, Holsen TM, Kamman NC, Munson R (2007) Mercury contamination in remote forest and aquatic ecosystems in the northeastern U.S.: Sources, transformations and management options. Bioscience 57:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. EC and HC (Environment Canada and Health Canada) (2010) Risk management strategy for mercury. ISBN: 978-1-100-16002-3 pp 52. www.ec.gc.ca/doc/mercure-mercury/1241/index_e.htm. Accessed 23 August 2011
  25. Ethier ALM, Atkinson JF, DePinto JV, Lean DRS (2011) Estimating mercury concentrations and fluxes in the water column and sediment of Lake Ontario with HERMES model. Environ Pollut (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.002
  26. Evers DC, Clair TA (2005) Mercury in northeastern North America: a synthesis of existing databases. Ecotoxicology 14:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evers DC, Savoy L, DeSorbo CR, Yates D, Hanson W, Taylor KM et al (2008) Adverse effects from environmental mercury loads on breeding common loons. Ecotoxicology 17:69–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evers DC, Williams KA, Meyer MW, Scheuhammer AM, Schoch N, Gilbert A, Siegel L, Taylor RJ, Poppenga R, Perkins CR (2011a) Spatial gradients of methylmercury for breeding common loons in the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0753-7
  29. Evers DC, Wiener J, Driscoll C, Gay D, Basu N, Monson B, Lambert K, Morrison H, Morgan J, Williams K, Soehl A (2011b) Great Lakes mercury connections: the extent and effects of mercury pollution in the Great Lakes Region. Biodiversity Research Institute, Gorham, MEGoogle Scholar
  30. Evers DC, Jackson A, Franklin J, Schoch N, Adams E, Johnson I, Buck D, Osborne C (2011c) Hidden Risk:Mercury contamination in terrestrial ecosystems. Biodiversity Research Institute, Gorham, MEGoogle Scholar
  31. Fitzgerald WF, Engstrom DR, Mason RP, Nater EA (1998) The case for atmospheric mercury contamination in remote areas. Environ Sci Technol 32:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (2000) How to enjoy fish safely: facts about fish and nutrition. Odanah, pp 16. http://www.glifwc.org/publications/pdf/EnjoyFish_Supplement.pdf. Accessed 2 August 2011
  33. Grieb TM, Bowie GL, Driscoll CR, Gloss SP, Schofield CL, Porcella DB (1990) Factors affecting mercury accumulation in fish in the upper Michigan peninsula. Environ Sci Technol 9:919–930Google Scholar
  34. Guallar E, Sanz-Gallardo MI, van’t VeerP, Bode P, Aro A, Gomez-Aracena J, Kark JD, Rieersma RA, Martin-Moreno JM, Kok FJ (2002) Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 347:1747–1754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamilton M, Scheuhammer A, Basu N (2011) Mercury, selenium, and neurochemical biomarkers in different brain regions of migrating common loons from Lake Erie, Canada. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0754-6
  36. Head JA, Debofsky A, Hinshaw J, Basu N (2011) Retrospective analysis of mercury content in feathers of birds collected from the state of Michigan (1895–2007). Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0738-6
  37. Heinz GH, Hoffman DJ, Klimstra JD, Stebbins KR, Kondrad SL, Erwin CA (2009) Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Imm P, Knobeloch L, Anderson HA, Great Lakes Sport Fish Consortium (2005) Fish consumption and advisory awareness in the Great Lakes Basin. Environ Health Perspect 113:1325–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jackson AK, Evers DC, Etterson MA, Condon AM, Folsom SB, Detweiter J, Schmerfeld J, Cristol DA (2011) Mercury exposure impacts the reproductive success of free-living terrestrial songbird, the Carolina wren. AukGoogle Scholar
  40. Kenow KP, Meyer MW, Rossman R, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A, Gray BR (2011) Effects of injected methylmercury on the hatching of common loon (Gavia immer) eggs. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0743-9
  41. Knobeloch L, Steenport D, Schrank C, Anderson H (2006) Methylmercury exposure in Wisconsin: a case study series. Environ Res 101:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Knobeloch L, Gliori G, Anderson H (2007) Assessment of methylmercury exposure in Wisconsin. Environ Res 103:205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lane OP, O’Brien KM, Evers DC, Hodgman TP, Major A, Pau N, Ducey MJ, Taylor R, Perry D (2011) mercury in breeding saltmarsh sparrows (Ammodramus caudacutus caudacutus). Ecotoxicology (in press). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0740-z
  44. Lindberg S, Bullock R, Ebinghaus R, Engstrom D, Feng X, Fitzgerald W, Pirrone N, Prestbo E, Seigneur C (2007) A synthesis of progress and uncertainties in attributing the sources of mercury in deposition. Ambio 36:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP, Bodurow CC (2004) Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000. Environ Health Perspect 112:562–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martin PA, McDaniel TV, Hughes KD, Hunter B (2011) Mercury and other heavy metals in free-ranging mink of the lower Great Lakes Basin, Canada, 1998–2006. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0763-5
  47. Mason RP, Abbot ML, Bodaly RA, Bullock OR, Driscoll CT, Evers DC, Lindberg SE, Murray M, Swain EB (2005) Monitoring the response to changing mercury deposition. Environ Sci Technol 39:14A–22ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mergler D, Anderson HA, Chan LHM, Mahaffey KR, Murray M, Sakamoto M, Stern AH (2007) Methylmercury exposure and health effects in humans: a worldwide concern. Ambio 36:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meyer MW, Rasmussen PW, Watras CJ, Fevold BM, Kenow KP (2011) Bi-phasic trends in mercury concentrations in blood of Wisconsin common loons during 1992-2010. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0759-1
  50. Monson BA (2009) Trend reversal of mercury concentrations in piscivorous fish from Minnesota lakes: 1982–2006. Environ Sci Technol 43:1750–1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Monson BA, Staples DF, Bhavsar SP, Holsen TM, Schrank CS, Moses SK, McGoldrick DJ, Backus SM, Williams KA (2011) Spatiotemporal trends of mercury in walleye and largemouth bass from the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0715-0
  52. Montgomery M, Needelman M (1997) The welfare effects of toxic contamination in freshwater fish. Land Econ 73:211–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Morrison HA (2011) The Canadian clean air regulatory agenda mercury science program. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0714-1
  54. Muir DCG, Wang X, Yang F, Nguyen N, Jackson TA, Evan MS, Douglas M, Kck G, Lamoureux S, Pienitz R, Smol JP, Vincent WF, Dastoor A (2009) Spatial trends and historical deposition of mercury in eastern and northern Canada inferred from lake sediment cores. Environ Sci Technol 43:4802–4809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Munthe J, Bodaly RA, Branfireun BA, Driscoll CT, Gilmour CC, Harris R, Horvat M, Lucotte M, Malm O (2007) Recovery of mercury-contaminated fisheries. Ambio 36:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ontario Ministry of the Environment (2011) Guide to eating Ontario sport fish, 2011–2012, 26th edn. Public Information Centre, Toronto, pp 285. http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/stdprodconsume/groups/lr/@ene/@resources/documents/resource/std01_079301.pdf. Accessed 2 August 2011
  57. PA USE (2011) Technical support document: national-scale mercury risk assessment supporting the appropriate and necessary finding for coal- and oil-fired electric generating units. EPA-452/D-11–002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  58. Pacyna EG, Pacyna JM, Steenhuisen F, Wilson S (2006) Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmos Environ 40:4048–4063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Paterson MJ, Rudd JWM, Louis VS (1998) Increases in total and methylmercury in zooplankton following flooding of a peatland reservoir. Environ Sci Technol 32:3868–3874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pirrone N, Mason R (2009) Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere: Emissions measurements and models. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Pittman HT, Bowerman WW, Grim LH, Grubb TG, Bridges WC (2011) Using nestling feathers to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of mercury in bald eagles, at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0736-8
  62. Risch MR, DeWild JF, Krabbenhoft DP, Kolka RK, Zhang L (2011a) Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA. Environ Pollut (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.005
  63. Risch MR, Gay DA, Fowler KK, Keeler GJ, Backus SM, Blanchard P, Barres JA, Dvonch JT (2011b) Spatial patterns and temporal trends in mercury concentrations, precipitation depths, and mercury wet deposition in the North American Great Lakes region, 2002–2008. Environ Pollut (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.05.030
  64. Riva-Murray K, Chasar LC, Bradley PM, Burns DA, Brigham ME, Smith MJ, Abrahamsen TA (2011) Spatial patterns of mercury in macroinvertebrates and fishes from streams of two contrasting forested landscapes in the eastern United States. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0719-9
  65. Rolfhus KR, Hall BD, Monson BA, Paterson MJ, Jeremiason J (2011) Assessment of mercury bioaccumulation within the pelagic food web of lakes in the western Great Lakes region. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0733-y
  66. Roman HA, Walsh TL, Coull BA, Dewailly É, Guallar E, Hattis D, Mariën K, Schwartz J, Stern AH, Virtanen IK, Rice G (2011) Evaluation of the cardiovascular effects of methylmercury exposures: current evidence supports development of a dose–response function for regulatory benefits analysis. Environ Health Perspect 119:607–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rutkiewicz J, Nam D, Cooley T, Neumann K, Padilla IB, Route W, Strom S, Basu N (2011) Mercury exposure and neurochemical impacts in bald eagles across several Great Lakes states. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0730-1
  68. Salonen JT, Seppänen K, Nyyssonen K, Korpela H, Kauhanen J, Kantola M (1995) Intake of mercury from fish, lipid peroxidation, and the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary, cardiovascular, and any death in Eastern Finnish Men. Circulation 91:645–655Google Scholar
  69. Sandheinrich MB, Wiener JG (2011) Methylmercury in freshwater fish: recent advances in assessing toxicity of environmentally relevant exposures. In: Beyer WN, Meador JP (eds) Environmental contaminants in biota: interpreting tissue concentrations, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 169–190Google Scholar
  70. Sandheinrich MB, Bhavsar SP, Bodaly RA, Drevnick PE, Paul EA (2011) Ecological risk of methylmercury to piscivorous fish of the Great Lakes region. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0712-3
  71. Scheuhammer AM, Meyer MW, Sandheinrich MB, Murray MW (2007) Effects of environmental methylmercury on the health of wild birds, mammals, and fish. Ambio 36:12–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Scheuhammer AM, Basu N, Evers DC, Heinz GH, Sandheinrich MB, Bank M (2011) Toxicology of mercury in fish and wildlife: recent advances. In: Bank M (ed) Mercury in the environment: pattern and process. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  73. Schmeltz D, Evers DC, Driscoll CT, Artz R, Cohen M, Gay D, Haeuber R, Krabbenhoft DP, Mason R, Morris K, Wiener JG (2011) MercNet: a national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0756-4
  74. Severtson DJ, Baumann LC, Will JA (2002) A participatory assessment of environmental health concerns in an Ojibwa community. Public Health Nurs 19:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shanley JB, Chalmers AT (2011) Streamwater fluxes of total mercury and methylmercury into and out of Lake Champlain. Environ Pollut (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.07.006
  76. Shear H, Fuller K, Wittig J (1995) The Great Lakes: an environmental atlas and resource book, 3rd edn. Government of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Great Lakes National Program, Chicago, IL. Available at http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/atlas/. Accessed 3 June 2011
  77. Shriver G, Evers DC, Hodgman TP, MacCulloch BJ, Taylor RJ (2006) Mercury in sharp-tailed sparrows breeding in coastal wetlands. Environmental Bioindicators 1:129–135Google Scholar
  78. St.Louis VL, Rudd JWM, Kelly CA, Beaty KG, Bloom NS, Flett RJ (1994) Importance of wetlands as sources of methyl mercury to boreal forest ecosystems. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:1065–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Strom SM, Brady RS (2011) Mercury in swamp sparrows (Melospiza georgiana) from wetland habitats in Wisconsin. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0734-x
  80. Swain EB, Engstrom DR, Brigham ME, Henning TA, Brezonik PL (1992) Increasing rates of atmospheric mercury deposition in midcontinental North America. Science 257:784–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Swain EB, Jakus PM, Rice G, Lupi F, Maxson PA, Pacyna JM, Penn A, Spiegel SJ, Veiga MM (2007) Socioeconomic consequences of mercury use and pollution. Ambio 36:45–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Trasande L, Schechter C, Landrigan PJ (2005) Public health and economic consequences of environmental methylmercury toxicity to the developing brain. Environ Health Perspect 113:590–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Turnquist MA, Driscoll CT, Schulz KL, Schlaepfer MA (2011) Mercury concentrations in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) correlate with environmental and landscape characteristics. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0718-x
  84. UNEP Chemicals Branch (2008) The global atmospheric mercury assessment: sources emissions and transport. UNEP Chemicals, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  85. USEPA (2009) 2008 Biennial national listing of fish advisories. Fact Sheet EPA-823-F-09-007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/fishshellfish/fishadvisories/. Accessed 2 August 2011
  86. Weseloh DV, Moore DJ, Hebert CE, de Solla SR, Braune BM, McGoldrick DJ (2011) Current concentrations and spatial and temporal trends in mercury in Great Lakes herring gull eggs, 1974–2009. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0755-5
  87. Wiener JG, Krabbenhoft DP, Heinz GH, Scheuhammer AM (2003) Ecotoxicology of mercury. In: Hoffman DJ, Rattner BA, Burton GA Jr, Cairns J Jr (eds) Handbook of ecotoxicology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 409–463Google Scholar
  88. Wiener JG, Knights BC, Sandheinrich MB, Jeremiason JD, Brigham ME, Engstrom DR, Woodruff LG, Cannon WF, Balogh SJ (2006) Mercury in soils, lakes, and fish in Voyageurs National Park: importance of atmospheric deposition and ecosystem factors. Environ Sci Technol 40:6261–6268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wiener JG, Evers DC, Gay DA, Morrison HA, Williams KA (2011a) Mercury contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes: introduction and overview. Environ Pollut (in press)Google Scholar
  90. Wiener JG, Sandheinrich MB, Bhavsar SP, Bohr JR, Evers DC, Monson BA, Schrank CS (2011b) Toxicological significance of mercury in yellow perch in the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Environ Pollut (in press)Google Scholar
  91. Wyn B, Kidd KA, Burgess NM, Curry RA, Munkittrick KR (2010) Increasing mercury in yellow perch at a hotspot in Atlantic Canada, Kejimkujik National Park. Environ Sci Technol 44:9176–9181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yates DE, Kunz TH, Evers DC, Divoll T (2011) Assessment of mercury accumulation in bat fur from eight countries around the world (abstract). 10th International conference on mercury as a global pollutant, Halifax, Nova Scotia, July 24–29, 2011. http://www.mercury2011.org/program-pg9. Accessed 9 August 2011
  93. Yu X, Driscoll CT, Montesdeoca M, Evers D, Duron M, Williams K, Schoch N, Kamman NC (2011) Spatial patterns of mercury in biota of Adirondack, New York lakes. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0717-y
  94. Zananski TJ, Holsen TM, Hopke PK, Crimmins BS (2011) Mercury temporal trends in top predator fish of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Ecotoxicology (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0751-9
  95. Zhang L, Blanchard P, Johnson D, Dastoor A, Ryzhkov A, Lin CJ, Vijayaraghavan K, Gay D, Holsen TM, Huang J, Graydon JA, St. Louis VL, Castro MS, Miller EK, Marsik F, Lu J, Poissant L, Pilote M, Zhang KM (2011) Assessment of modeled mercury dry deposition over the Great Lakes region. Environ Pollut (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.003

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • David C. Evers
    • 1
  • James G. Wiener
    • 2
  • Niladri Basu
    • 3
  • R. A. Bodaly
    • 4
  • Heather A. Morrison
    • 5
  • Kathryn A. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Biodiversity Research InstituteGorhamUSA
  2. 2.University of Wisconsin-La CrosseRiver Studies CenterLa CrosseUSA
  3. 3.University of Michigan School of Public HealthDepartment of Environmental Health SciencesAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Penobscot River Mercury StudyBritish ColumbiaCanada
  5. 5.Environment CanadaDownsviewCanada

Personalised recommendations