Interactions of silver nanoparticles with the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca
- 779 Downloads
The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed for 48 h to different concentrations of Ag added as either silver nanoparticles (AgNP) or aqueous metal (AgNO3) and the resulting toxicity, estimated from reductions in quenching of chlorophyll-a fluorescence, and accumulation of Ag measured. Aqueous Ag was toxic at available concentrations as low as about 2.5 μg l−1 and exhibited considerable accumulation that could be defined by the Langmuir equation. AgNP were not phytotoxic to the macroalga at available Ag concentrations up to at least 15 μg l−1 and metal measured in U. lactuca was attributed to a physical association of nanoparticles at the algal surface. At higher AgNP concentrations, a dose–response relationship was observed that was similar to that for aqueous Ag recorded at much lower concentrations. These findings suggest that AgNP are only indirectly toxic to marine algae through the dissolution of Ag+ ions into bulk sea water, albeit at concentrations orders of magnitude greater than those predicted in the environment.
KeywordsSilver nanoparticles Silver ions Sea water Ulva lactuca Toxicity Accumulation
We thank Mr Andrew Atfield and Ms Haiying Li for advice on preparation of the nanoparticles, Mrs Angela Harrop for assistance with the algal culturing and fluorescence measurements, and Dr Andrew Fisher for undertaking the ICP-MS analysis.
- Aruoja V, Dubourguier H-C, Kasemets K, Kahru A (2009) Toxicity of nanoparticles of CuO, ZnO and TiO2 to microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Sci Total Environ 4067:1461–1468Google Scholar
- Reinfelder JR, Chang SI (1999) Speciation and microalgal bioavailability of inorganic silver. Environ Sci Technol 33:1860–1863Google Scholar