, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 438–446 | Cite as

Biodegradation of malachite green by Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 under aerobic condition: characteristics, degradation products, enzyme analysis and phytotoxicity

  • Lin-Na Du
  • Sheng Wang
  • Gang Li
  • Bing Wang
  • Xiao-Ming JiaEmail author
  • Yu-Hua ZhaoEmail author
  • Yun-Long Chen


Malachite green (MG), a widely-used and recalcitrant dye, has been confirmed to be carcinogenic and mutagenic against many organisms. The main objective of this study is to investigate the capability of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 to decolorize MG, and to explore the possible mechanism. The results showed that this strain demonstrated high decolorizing capability (90.3–97.2%) at high concentrations of MG (100–1,000 mg/l) under shaking condition within 24 h. In static conditions, lower but still effective decolorization (78.9–84.3%) was achieved. The optimal pH and temperature for the decolorization was pH 6.6 and 28–30°C, respectively. Mg2+ and Mn2+ (1 mM) were observed to significantly enhance the decolorization. The intermediates of the MG degradation under aerobic condition identified by UV–visible, GC–MS and LC–MS analysis included malachite green carbinol, (dimethyl amino-phenyl)-phenyl-methanone, N,N-dimethylaniline, (methyl amino-phenyl)-phenyl-methanone, (amino phenyl)-phenyl methanone and di-benzyl methane. The enzyme analysis indicated that Mn-peroxidase, NADH–DCIP and MG reductase were involved in the biodegradation of MG. Moreover, phytotoxicity of MG and detoxification for MG by the strain were observed. Therefore, this strain could be potentially used for bioremediation of MG.


Biodegradation Pseudomonas sp. Malachite green Degradation products Enzyme analysis Phytotoxicity 



This study was supported by the National Hi-Tech Research and Development Program (863) of China (No. 2007AA06Z329), the Science and Technology Project of Zhejiang Province (2008C13014-3), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31070079), and the International Cooperation Project in Science and Technology of Zhejiang Province (No. 2008C14038). The authors are grateful to Bipei Chen in USA and Professor Qifa Zhou (College of Life Science, Zhejiang University) for improving the manuscript; and Xinhang Jiang (Equipment and Technology Service platform, College of Life Science, Zhejiang University) for analyzing the products of biodegradation of MG using LC–MS.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life ScienceZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Agriculture and BiotechnologyWenzhou Vocational College of Science and TechnologyWenzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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