Limit-test toxicity screening of selected inorganic nanoparticles to the earthworm Eisenia fetida
- 958 Downloads
The toxicity of a range of inorganic (Ag, Cu, Ni, Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2) nanoparticles (NP) and their corresponding metal salt or bulk metal oxide were screened for toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida using the limit-test design (1000 mg/kg). This study provides the first ecotoxicological life history trait data on earthworms for each these NPs, as well as for AgNO3, Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2. Significant effects were observed on survival for AgNO3 (2.5% of controls), CuCl2 (17.5% of controls) and NiCl2 (32.5% of controls) and on reproduction (AgNO3, CuCl2, NiCl2, Ag-NP, Cu-NP, TiO2-NP); with total reproductive failure in both silver treatments. Ag-NP, Cu-NP and TiO2-NP were the only NPs that caused toxic effects to E. fetida. The toxicity could not be singularly related to particle size or zeta potential or to the inherent element constituting the NPs (e.g. Ag).
KeywordsSoil toxicity Invertebrates Nanomaterials Nanoparticles Metal Metal oxides
We are grateful for the financial support of the Danish Strategic Research Council through the NABIIT project 2006-06-0015 “SUNANO—Risk assessment of free nanoparticles”. We are indebted to Jacques Chevalier, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, and Martin Bremholm and Peter Hald, Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University for technical assistance and discussions concerning NP characterisation. We also thank Elin Jørgensen, Trine G. Sørensen and Mette Thomson, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University for technical assistance during the biological experiments and University of Bremen for the Al2O3-NP sample.
- Holmstrup M, Krogh PH, Løkke H, de Wolf W, Marshall S, Fox K (2001) Effects and risk assessment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in agricultural soil. 4. The influence of salt speciation, soil type, and sewage sludge on toxicity using the collembolan Folsomia fimetaria and the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa as test organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1680–1689Google Scholar
- OECD (2004) OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. no. 222. Earthworm reproduction test (Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei). Organization for economic cooperation and development, Paris, 18 ppGoogle Scholar