Ecotoxicology

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 139–148 | Cite as

Performance of standard media in toxicological assessments with Daphnia magna: chelators and ionic composition versus metal toxicity

  • Cláudia Loureiro
  • Bruno B. Castro
  • Joana Luísa Pereira
  • Fernando Gonçalves
Article

Abstract

Fully artificial test media can increase reproducibility and standardization in ecotoxicological assessments, but there is still a lack of convergence among ecotoxicology laboratories in aquatic test media with respect to ionic composition, chelators, and organic supplements. We compared the performance of Daphnia magna in three widely-used reconstituted media. The tested media differed in composition: (a) ADaM, an artificial medium based in a synthetic sea salt, with no a priori known chelating properties; (b) ASTM hard water supplemented with algal extract, a semi-artificial medium with unknown chelating properties; and (c) M7, a complex artificial medium containing EDTA as a chelator. All three media were suitable for rearing D. magna (although performance in M7 was suboptimal) and acute EC50 values for reference substances (3,4-DCA, K2Cr2O7) were similar between media. In acute exposures to Cu and Cd, daphniids were least sensitive when reared in M7, as expected due to metal chelation by EDTA. Daphnia sensitivity to Cd was low in ADaM. Thus, these two media were suboptimal for assessing the toxicity of some metals to D. magna in acute tests. We suggest that both the ionic composition of the medium and the presence of chelators should be taken into account when metal toxicity is concerned. Chronic toxicity profiles for Cu suggested a mild chelating effect of the algal extract in ASTM medium. Still, ASTM hard water persists as one of the most suitable media for acute toxicity assessments of metals and metal-contaminated samples.

Keywords

Daphnia magna Standard test media Metal toxicity Chelators Ionic composition Culture performance 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Cláudia Loureiro (SFRH/BD/36333/2007), Joana L. Pereira (SFRH/BPD/44733/2008) and Bruno B. Castro (SFRH/BPD/26291/2006) received grants from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal). Bruno B. Castro is currently employed as a researcher at CESAM—University of Aveiro under the programme Ciência 2008 (FCT, Portugal), co-funded by the Human Potential Operational Programme (National Strategic Reference Framework 2007–2013) and European Social Fund (EU). Authors thank two anonymous reviewers for substantial improvements to a previous version of the manuscript.

References

  1. Antunes SC, Castro BB, Gonçalves F (2004) Effect of food level on the acute and chronic responses of daphnids to lindane. Environ Pollut 127:367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM (1980) Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians, E 729–80. American Society for Testing and Materials, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Baer KN, Goulden CE (1998) Evaluation of a high-hardness COMBO medium and frozen algae for Daphnia magna. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 39:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baer KN, Ziegenfuss MC, Banks SD, Ling Z (1999) Suitability of high-hardness COMBO medium for ecotoxicity testing using algae, daphnids, and fish. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 63:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baird DJ, Barber I, Bradley MC, Calow P, Soares AMVM (1989a) The Daphnia bioassay: a critique. Hydrobiologia 188(189):403–406Google Scholar
  6. Baird DJ, Soares AMVM, Girling A, Barber I, Bradley MC, Calow P (1989b) The long-term maintenance of Daphnia magna Straus for use in ecotoxicity tests: problems and prospects. In: Lokke H, Tyle H, Bro-Rasmussen F (eds) Proceedings of the first European conference on ecotoxicology. Lyngby, pp 144–148Google Scholar
  7. Baird DJ, Barber I, Soares AMVM, Calow P (1991) An early life-stage test with Daphnia magna Straus—an alternative to the 21-day chronic test? Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 22:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Schamphelaere KAC, Janssen CR (2002) A biotic ligand model predicting acute copper toxicity for Daphnia magna: the effects of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and pH. Environ Sci Technol 36:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Di Toro DM, Allen HE, Bergman HL, Meyer JS, Paquin PR, Santore RC (2001) Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 1. Technical basis. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:2383–2396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ebert D (2006) Artificial Daphnia medium: ADaM. http://evolution.unibas.ch/ebert/lab/adam.htm. Accessed 23 April 2010
  11. Elendt BP, Bias WR (1990) Trace nutrient deficiency in Daphnia magna cultured in standard medium for toxicity testing. Effects of the optimization of culture conditions on life history parameters of D. magna. Water Res 24:1157–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Finney (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Flemming CA, Trevors JT (1989) Copper toxicity and chemistry in the environment—a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 44:143–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guilhermino L, Diamantino TC, Ribeiro R, Gonçalves F, Soares AMVM (1997) Suitability of test media containing EDTA for the evaluation of acute metal toxicity to Daphnia magna Straus. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 38:292–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guilhermino L, Diamantino T, Silva MC, Soares AMVM (2000) Acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna: an alternative to mammals in the prescreening of chemical toxicity? Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 46:357–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hyne RV, Pablo F, Julli M, Markich SJ (2005) Influence of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of copper and zinc to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:1667–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ISO (1996) Water quality: determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea)—acute toxicity test. ISO International Standard 6341. Internacional Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  18. ISO (2000) Water quality: determination of long term toxicity of substances to Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea). ISO International Standard 10706. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  19. Jackson BP, Lasier PJ, Miller WP, Winger PW (2000) Effects of calcium, magnesium, and sodium on alleviating cadmium toxicity to Hyalella azteca. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 64:279–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keating KI (1985) A system of defined (sensu stricto) media for daphnid (cladocera) culture. Water Res 19:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kilham SS, Kreeger DA, Lynn SG, Goulden CE, Herrera L (1998) COMBO: a defined freshwater culture medium for algae and zooplankton. Hydrobiologia 377:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim KT, Lee YG, Kim SD (2006) Combined toxicity of copper and phenol derivatives to Daphnia magna: effect of complexation reaction. Environ Int 32:487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klüttgen B, Dülmer U, Engels M, Ratte HT (1994) ADaM, an artificial freshwater for the culture of zooplankton. Water Res 28:743–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. LeBlanc GA, Surprenant DC (1983) The acute and chronic toxicity of acetone, dimethyl formamide, and triethylene glycol to Daphnia magna (Straus). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 12:305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meyer JS, Ingersoll CG, Mcdonald LL, Boyce MS (1986) Estimating uncertainty in population-growth rates—Jackknife vs. bootstrap techniques. Ecology 67:1156–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oda S, Tatarazako N, Dorgerloh M, Johnson RD, Kusk KO, Leverett D, Marchini S, Nakari T, Williams T, Iguchi T (2007) Strain difference in sensitivity to 3,4-dichloroaniline and insect growth regulator, fenoxycarb, in Daphnia magna. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 67:399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. OECD (1998) Daphnia magna reproduction test. OECD test guideline 211. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  28. OECD (2004) Daphnia sp., acute immobilization test. OECD test guideline 202. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Penttinen S, Kostamo A, Kukkonen JVK (1998) Combined effects of dissolved organic material and water hardness on toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia magna. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:2498–2503Google Scholar
  30. Quinn GP, Keough M (2002) Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. Sakwinska O (2002) Response to fish kairomone in Daphnia galeata life history traits relies on shift to earlier instar at maturation. Oecologia 131:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Samel A, Ziegenfuss M, Goulden CE, Banks S, Baer KN (1999) Culturing and bioassay testing of Daphnia magna using Elendt M4, Elendt M7, and COMBO media. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 43:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Soares AMVM, Baird DJ, Calow P (1992) Interclonal variation in the performance of Daphnia magna Straus in chronic bioassays. Environ Toxicol Chem 11:1477–1483Google Scholar
  34. Sorvari J, Sillanpää M (1996) Influence of metal complex formation on heavy metal and free EDTA and DTPA acute toxicity determined by Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 33:1119–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sousa A, Laranjeiro F, Takahashi S, Tanabe S, Barroso CM (2007) Usefulness of Nassarius reticulatus imposex levels to monitor decreasing levels in TBT pollution: field and laboratory studies. Organohalogen Compd 69:1075–1078Google Scholar
  36. Taylor G, Baird DJ, Soares AMVM (1998) Surface binding of contaminants by algae: consequences for lethal toxicity and feeding to Daphnia magna Straus. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:412–419Google Scholar
  37. USEPA (2002) Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms, 5th edn, EPA-821-R-02–012. US Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  38. USEPA, USACE (1998) Great lakes dredged material testing and evaluation manual—final draft. US Environmental Protection Agency and US Army Corps of Engineers, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  39. Zar JH (1996) Biostatistical analysis, 3rd edn. Prentice-Hall Inc, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cláudia Loureiro
    • 1
  • Bruno B. Castro
    • 1
  • Joana Luísa Pereira
    • 1
  • Fernando Gonçalves
    • 1
  1. 1.CESAM & Department of BiologyUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal

Personalised recommendations