Advertisement

Ecotoxicology

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 1193–1200 | Cite as

Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative stress in the blood of subjects exposed to occupational airborne contamination from coal mining extraction and incineration of hospital residues

  • D. Wilhelm Filho
  • S. Ávila Júnior
  • F. P. Possamai
  • E. B. Parisotto
  • A. M. Moratelli
  • T. R. Garlet
  • D. B. Inácio
  • M. A. Torres
  • P. Colepicolo
  • F. Dal-Pizzol
Article

Abstract

Coal mining and incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) generate several contaminants that are delivered into the environment, such as heavy metals and dioxins. These xenobiotics can lead to oxidative stress overgeneration in organisms and cause different kinds of pathologies, including cancer. In the present study the concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the urine, as well as several enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers of oxidative stress in the blood (contents of lipoperoxidation = TBARS, protein carbonyls = PC, protein thiols = PT, α-tocopherol = AT, reduced glutathione = GSH, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in the blood of six different groups (n = 20 each) of subjects exposed to airborne contamination related to coal mining as well as incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) after vitamin E (800 mg/day) and vitamin C (500 mg/day) supplementation during 6 months, which were compared to the situation before the antioxidant intervention (Ávila et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1150–1157, 2009; Possamai et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1158–1164, 2009). Except for the decreased manganese contents, heavy metal concentrations were elevated in all groups exposed to both sources of airborne contamination when compared to controls. TBARS and PC concentrations, which were elevated before the antioxidant intervention decreased after the antioxidant supplementation. Similarly, the contents of PC, AT and GSH, which were decreased before the antioxidant intervention, reached values near those found in controls, GPx activity was reestablished in underground miners, and SOD, CAT and GST activities were reestablished in all groups. The results showed that the oxidative stress condition detected previously to the antioxidant supplementation in both directly and indirectly subjects exposed to the airborne contamination from coal dusts and SRHS incineration, was attenuated after the antioxidant intervention.

Keywords

Coal mining Incineration Airborne contamination Oxidative stress Antioxidant supplementation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by grants from CNPq/MCT-Brazil and UNESC-Brazil. DWF is a recipient of a CNPq scholarship (proc. 305018/2006-0). EBP, AMM and DBI were recipients of PIBIC scholarships from CNPq (procs. 100195/2008-3; 113975/2008-2; 119304/2008-2, respectively).

References

  1. Aslibekian O, Moles R (2003) Environmental risk assessment of metals contaminated soils at silver mines abandoned mine site, Co Tipperary, Ireland. Environ Geochem Health 25(2):247–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ávila S Jr, Possamai FP, Budni P, Backes P, Parisotto EB, Rizelio VM, Torres MA, Colepicolo P, Wilhelm Filho D (2009) Occupational airborne contamination in south Brazil: 1. Oxidative stress detected in the blood of coal miners. Ecotoxicology 18:1150–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker S, Soukup JM, Gallagher JE (2002) Differential particulate air pollution induced oxidant stress in human granulocytes, monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Toxicol In Vitro 16:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly BM (1963) Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 61:882–890Google Scholar
  5. Block G, Jensen CD, Morrow JD, Holland N, Norkus E, Milne GL, Hudes M, Dalvi TB, Crawford PB, Fung EB, Schumacher L, Harmatz P (2008) The effect of vitamins C and E on biomarkers of oxidative stress depends on baseline level. Free Radic Biol Med 45:377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brigelius-Flohé R (2009) Vitamin E: the shrew waiting to be tamed. Free Radic Biol Med 46:543–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burbure C, Buchet JP, Leroyer A, Nisse C, Haguenoer JM, Mutti A, Smerhovsky Z, Cikrt M, Trzcinka-Ochocka M, Razniewska G, Jakubowski M, Bernard A (2006) Renal and neurologic effects of cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic in children: evidence of early effects and multiple interactions at environmental exposure levels. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):584–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen HL, Hsu CY, Hung DZ, Hu ML (2006) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in workers exposed to PCDD/Fs of metal recovery plants. Sci Total Environ 372:12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Flora SJS, Mittal M, Mehta A (2008) Heavy metal induced oxidative stress and its possible reversal by chelation therapy. Indian J Med Res 128:501–523Google Scholar
  10. Gaetke LM, Chow CK (2003) Copper toxicity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant nutrients. Toxicology 189(1–2):147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gonzalez CA, Kogevinas M, Gadea E, Huici A, Bosh A, Bleda MJ, Päpke O (2000) Biomonitoring study of people living near or working at a municipal solid-waste incinerator before and after two years of operation. Arch Environ Health 55(4):259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Halliwell B (2009) The wanderings of a free radical. Free Radic Biol Med 46:531–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1999) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford Science Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Halliwell B, Rafter J, Jenner A (2005) Health promotion by flavonoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and other phenols: direct or indirect effects? Antioxidant or not? Am J Clin Nutr 81(Suppl):268–276Google Scholar
  15. Harris GK, Shi X (2003) Signaling by carcinogenic metals and metal-induced reactive oxygen species. Mutat Res 533:183–200Google Scholar
  16. Hassoun EA, Walter AC, Alsharif NZ, Stohs SJ (1997) Modulation of TCDD-induced fetotoxicity and oxidative stress in embryonic and placental tissues of C57BL/6J mice by vitamin E succinate and ellagic acid. Toxicology 124:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hatzis C, Godleski JJ, González-Flecha B, Wolfson JM, Koutrakis P (2006) Ambient particulate matter exhibits direct inhibitory on oxidative stress enzymes. Environ Sci Technol 40:2805–2811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hercberg S (2006) The SU.VI.MAX study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals on health. Ann Pharm Fr 64:397–401Google Scholar
  19. Howard DJ, Ota RB, Briggs LA, Hampton M, Pritsos CA (1998) Oxidative stress induced by environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace is mitigated by antioxidant supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:981–988Google Scholar
  20. Korashy HM, El-Kadi AOS (2006) The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the reactive oxygen species in the modulation of glutathione transferase by heavy metals in murine hepatoma cell lines. Chem Biol Interact 162:237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Korashy HM, El-Kadi AOS (2008) The role of redox-sensitive transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 in the modulation of the Cyp1a1 gene by mercury, lead, and copper. Free Radic Biol Med 44:795–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Levine RL, Williams JA, Stadtman ER, Shacter E (1994) Carbonyl assays for determination of oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol 233:346–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lowry OH, Rosebrough AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275Google Scholar
  24. Maçao LB, Wilhelm Filho D, Pedrosa RC, Pereira A, Backes P, Torres MA, Fröde TS (2007) Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative stress in chronic cardiopathy associated with Chaga’s disease. Int J Cardiol 123:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nair U, Bartsch H, Nair J (2007) Lipid peroxidation-induced DNA damage in cancer-prone inflammatory diseases: a review of published adduct types and levels in humans. Free Radic Biol Med 43:1109–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pinho RA, Silveira PCL, Silva LA, Streck EL, Dal-Pizzol F, Moreira JCF (2005) N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reduce pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation in rats after coal dust exposure. Environ Res 99(3):355–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Possamai FP, Fortunato JJ, Feier G, Agostinho FR, Quevedo J, Wilhelm Filho D, Dal-Pizzol F (2007) Oxidative stress after acute and sub-chronic malathion intoxication in Wistar rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 23:198–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Possamai FP, Ávila S Jr, Budni P, Backes P, Parisotto EB, Rizelio VM, Torres MA, Colepicolo P, Wilhelm Filho D (2009) Occupational airborne contamination in south Brazil: 2. Oxidative stress detected in the blood of workers of incineration of hospital residues. Ecotoxicology 18:1158–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Reis MF, Sampaio C, Brantes A, Aniceto P, Melim M, Cardoso L, Gabriel C, Simão F, Miguel JP (2007) Human exposure to heavy metals in the vicinity of Portuguese solid waste incinerators—Part 1: biomonitoring of Pb, Cd and Hg in blood of the general population. Int J Hyg Environ Health 210:439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ribeiro CM, Budni P, Pedrosa RC, Farias MS, Parisotto EB, Dalmarco EM, Fröde TS, Oliveira-Silva D, Colepicolo P, Wilhelm Filho D (2010) Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative insult caused by benzonidazole in chronic Chagas heart disease. Int J Cardiol (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
  31. Rice-Evans CA, Diplock AT (1993) Current status of antioxidant therapy. Free Radic Biol Med 15:77–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Riddles PW, Blakeley RL, Zerner B (1983) Reassessment of Ellman’s reagent. Methods Enzymol 91:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roberts LJ II, Traber MG (2009) Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer in men. Free Radic Biol Med 46:1558–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roberts LJ II, Oates JA, Linton MF, Fazio S, Meador BP, Gross MD, Shyr Y, Morrow JD (2007) The relationship between dose of vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humans. Free Radic Biol Med 43:1388–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schins RP, Borm PJ (1999) Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review. Ann Occup Hyg 43:7–33Google Scholar
  36. Sorensen M, Schins RPF, Hertel O, Loft S (2005) Transition metals in personal samples of PM2.5 and oxidative stress in human volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(5):1340–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sovocool GW, Mitchum RK, Tondeur Y, Munslow WD, Vonnahme TL, Donnelly JR (1988) Bromo- and bromochloro-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal incinerator fly ash. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom 15:669–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Steenland K, Loomis D, Shy C, Simonsen N (1996) Review of occupational lung carcinogens. Am J Ind Med 29:474–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Traber MG, Atkinson J (2007) Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more. Free Radic Biol Med 43:4–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M (2006) Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact 160:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang G, Fowler BA (2008) Roles of biomarkers in evaluating interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 233(1):92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Willis JB (1962) Determination of lead and other heavy metals in urine by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Anal Chem 34(6):614–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yoshida R, Ogawa Y, Mori I, Nakata A, Wang R, Ueno S, Shioji I, Hisanaga N (2003) Associations between oxidative stress levels and total duration of engagement in jobs with exposure to fly ash among workers at municipal solid waste incinerators. Mutagenesis 18(6):533–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zingg JM (2007) Vitamin E: an overview of major research directions. Mol Asp Med 28:400–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Wilhelm Filho
    • 1
  • S. Ávila Júnior
    • 3
  • F. P. Possamai
    • 3
  • E. B. Parisotto
    • 1
  • A. M. Moratelli
    • 1
  • T. R. Garlet
    • 1
  • D. B. Inácio
    • 1
  • M. A. Torres
    • 2
  • P. Colepicolo
    • 2
  • F. Dal-Pizzol
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Respiratória, ECZ, CCBUniversidade Federal de Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de BioquímicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Lab. de Fisiopatologia ExperimentalUniversidade do Extremo Sul CatarinenseCriciúmaBrazil

Personalised recommendations