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Ecotoxicology

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 449–462 | Cite as

Impact of near-future ocean acidification on echinoderms

  • S. DupontEmail author
  • O. Ortega-Martínez
  • M. Thorndyke
Article

Abstract

As a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, the world’s oceans are warming and slowly becoming more acidic (ocean acidification, OA) and profound changes in marine ecosystems are certain. Calcification is one of the primary targets for studies of the impact of CO2-driven climate change in the oceans and one of the key marine groups most likely to be impacted by predicted climate change events are the echinoderms. Echinoderms are a vital component of the marine environment with representatives in virtually every ecosystem, where they are often keystone ecosystem engineers. This paper reviews and analyses what is known about the impact of near-future ocean acidification on echinoderms. A global analysis of the literature reveals that echinoderms are surprisingly robust to OA and that important differences in sensitivity to OA are observed between populations and species. However, this is modulated by parameters such as (1) exposure time with rare longer term experiments revealing negative impacts that are hidden in short or midterm ones; (2) bottlenecks in physiological processes and life-cycle such as stage-specific developmental phenomena that may drive the whole species responses; (3) ecological feedback transforming small scale sub lethal effects into important negative effects on fitness. We hypothesize that populations/species naturally exposed to variable environmental pH conditions may be pre-adapted to future OA highlighting the importance to understand and monitor environmental variations in order to be able to to predict sensitivity to future climate changes. More stress ecology research is needed at the frontier between ecotoxicology and ecology, going beyond standardized tests using model species in order to address multiple water quality factors (e.g. pH, temperature, toxicants) and organism health. However, available data allow us to conclude that near-future OA will have negative impact on echinoderm taxa with likely significant consequences at the ecosystem level.

Keywords

Ocean acidification Climate change Echinoderm CO2 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was performed within the Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology at the University of Gothenburg (http://www.cemeb.science.gu.se/), and supported by a Linnaeus-grant from the Swedish Research Councils VR and Formas and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. This paper is a contribution to the “European Project on Ocean Acidification” (EPOCA) which received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement N211384. The authors also thank Knut & Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelsen, BAS Q4 BIOREACH/BIOFLAME core program for financial support and EMBO for a long term fellowship to OO.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marine Ecology, The Sven Lovén Centre for Marine SciencesUniversity of GothenburgKristinebergSweden
  2. 2.The Sven Lovén Centre for Marine SciencesRoyal Swedish Academy of SciencesKristinebergSweden

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