, Volume 17, Issue 7, pp 660–679 | Cite as

Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: I. Hazard assessment and problem formulation

  • John F. Carriger
  • Gary M. Rand


An aquatic risk assessment under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) ecological risk framework was conducted for atrazine, metolachlor, malathion, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan in the C-111 freshwater basin (eastern boundary of the Everglades National Park), northeast Florida Bay, and south Biscayne Bay in South Florida. Based on the use of the hazard quotient approach, measured concentrations of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in surface waters suggest potential hazards to aquatic organisms and were, therefore, considered as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs). The problem formulation included an overview of the physical/chemical and environmental fate characteristics and aquatic toxicology of the COPECs. Background surface water exposure concentrations of endosulfan and toxicity data from laboratory and field studies indicate that fish and invertebrate mortality may be a concern when endosulfan is applied in agricultural areas near aquatic ecosystems.


Endosulfan Chlorpyrifos Atrazine Malathion Metolachlor Ecological risk assessment Everglades National Park Biscayne National Park C-111 canal Florida Bay Biscayne Bay Everglades restoration 



This studied was funded by the Critical Ecosystems Studies Initiative, Everglades National Park, U.S. Department of the Interior, Cooperative Agreement no. H5284-02-0094. This is Southeast Environmental Research Center (SERC) contribution no. 386.


  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2000) Toxicological profile for endosulfan. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  2. Balluff M (2001) Field soil dissipation of AE F002671 (endosulfan) following a single application to bare (preemergence) cotton plots at 1 location in Greece. Aventis Crop Science Study 20003033/GR1-FSGoogle Scholar
  3. Barron MG, Woodburn KB (1995) Ecotoxicology of chlorpyrifos. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 144:1–93Google Scholar
  4. Barry MJ, Davies W (2004) Effects of invertebrate predators and a pesticide on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing. Environ Pollut 131:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barry MJ, Logan DC (1998) The use of temporary pond microcosms for aquatic toxicity testing: direct and indirect effects of endosulfan on community structure. Aquat Toxicol 41:101–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Browder JA, Restrepo VR, Rice JK, Robblee MB, Zein-Eldin Z (1999) Environmental influences on potential recruitment of pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, from Florida Bay nursery grounds. Estuaries 22:484–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buchmann MF (1999) NOAA screening quick reference tables, NOAA HAZMAT report 99-1. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Protection and Restoration Division, Seattle, WA, 12 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. California Department of Pesticides (CDPR) (2000) Memorandum. Recommendation for priority surface water monitoring studies on selected pesticides. Available online at: http:///
  9. Callahan MA, Slimak MW, Gabel NW, May IP, Fowler CF, Freed JR, Jennings P, Durfree RL, Whitmore FC, Maestri B, Mabey WR, Holt BR, Gould C (1979) Water-related environmental fate of 129 priority pollutants: I. Introduction and technical background, metals and inorganics, pesticides and PCBs. EPA-440/4-79-029a, U.S.EPA, Office of Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. Cantillo AY, Lauenstein CG, O’Connor TP, Johnson WE (1999) Status and trends of contaminant levels in biota and sediments of South Florida. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, Silver Spring, MDGoogle Scholar
  11. Carriger JF, Rand GM, Gardinali PR, Perry WB, Tompkins MS, Fernandez AM (2006) Pesticides of potential ecological concern in sediment from south Florida canals: an ecological risk prioritization for aquatic arthropods. Soil Sed Contam 15:21–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davis SM, Ogden JC (1997) Everglades, the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  13. de Kanel J, Morse JW (1978) The chemistry of orthophosphate uptake from seawater on to calcite and aragonite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:1335–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeLorenzo ME, Scott GI, Ross PE (1999) Effects of the agricultural pesticides atrazine, deethylatrazine, endosulfan, and chlorpyrifos on an estuarine microbial food web. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:2824–2835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeLorenzo ME, Taylor LA, Lund SA, Pennington PL, Strozier ED, Fulton MH (2002) Toxicity and bioconcentration potential of the agricultural pesticide endosulfan in phytoplankton and zooplankton. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 42:173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dilling WL, Lickly LC, Lickly TD, Murphy PG, McKellar RL (1984) Organic photochemistry. 19. Quantum yields for O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphorothioate(chlorpyrifos) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in dilute aqueous solutions and their environmental phototransformation rates. Environ Sci Technol 18:540–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ECOFRAM (1999) Ecological committee on FIFRA risk assessment methods: report of the aquatic workgroup. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  18. Ernst WR, Jonah P, Doe K, Julien G, Hennigar P (1991) Toxicity to aquatic organisms of off-target deposition of endosulfan applied by aircraft. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Faria MS, Nogueira AJA, Soares AMVM (2007) The use of Chironomus riparius larvae to assess effects of pesticides from rice fields in adjacent freshwater ecosystems. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 67:218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fatt JC, Wang JD (1987) Canal discharge impacts on Biscayne Bay salinities. Research/Resources Management Report SER-89, United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  21. Fischer R (1994) Simulated or actual field testing: a comparison. In: Graney RL, Kennedy JH, Rodgers JH Jr (eds) Aquatic mesocosm studies in ecological risk assessment. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  22. Florida Department of Agriculture, Consumer Services (FDOACS) (1999) Summary of agricultural pesticide usage in Florida: 1995–1998. FDOACS, Division of Agricultural Environmental Services, Bureau of Pesticides, Tallahassee, FLGoogle Scholar
  23. Florida Department of Agriculture, Consumer Services (FDOACS) (2003) Summary of agricultural pesticide usage in Florida: 1999–2002. FDOACS, Division of Agricultural Environmental Services, Bureau of Pesticides, Tallahassee, FLGoogle Scholar
  24. Fox PJ, Matthiessen P (1982) Acute toxicity to fish of low-dose aerosol applications of endosulfan to control tsetse fly in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Environ Pollut Ecol Biol 27:129–142Google Scholar
  25. Frank R, Braun HE, Holdrinet MVH, Sirons GJ, Ripley BD (1982) Agriculture and water quality in the Canadian Great Lakes basin. V. Pesticide use in 11 agricultural watersheds and presence in stream water, 1975–1977. J Environ Qual 11:497–505Google Scholar
  26. Frank R, Braun HE, Ripley BD, Clegg BS (1990) Contamination of rural ponds with pesticide, 1971–85, Ontario, Canada. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 44:401–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fulton MH, Moore DW, Wirth EF, Chandler GT, Key PB, Daugomah JW, Strozier ED, Devane J, Clark JR, Lewis MA, Finley DB, Ellenberg W, Karnaky KJ Jr, Scott GI (1999) Assessment of risk reduction strategies for the management of agricultural nonpoint source pesticide runoff in estuarine ecosystems. Toxicol Ind Health 15:201–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fulton MH, Scott GI, DeLorenzo ME, Key PB, Bearden DW, Strozier ED, Madden CJ (2004) Surface water pesticide movement from the Dade County agricultural area to the Everglades and Florida Bay via the C-111 canal. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 73:527–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. German Federal Environment Agency (2007) Endosulfan: draft dossier prepared in support of a proposal of endosulfan to be considered as a candidate for inclusion in the Annexes to the Stockholm Convention. Umweltbundesamt, Germany. February 2007Google Scholar
  30. Giddings JM, Anderson TA, Hall LW, Hosmer AJ, Kendall RJ, Richards RP, Solomon KR, Williams WM (2000) Aquatic ecological risk assessment of atrazine: a tiered probabilistic approach. A report of an expert panel. Report no. 709–00. Novartis Crop Protection, Inc., Greensboro, NCGoogle Scholar
  31. Giesy JP, Solomon KR, Coats JR, Dixon KR, Giddings JM, Kenaga EE (1999) Chlorpyrifos: ecological risk assessment in North American aquatic environments. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 160:1–129Google Scholar
  32. Goebel H, Gorbach S, Knuaf W, Rimpau RH, Hüttenbach H (1982) Properties, effects, residues, and analytics of the insecticide endosulfan. Residue Rev 83:1–174Google Scholar
  33. Goodman LR, Lewis MA, Macauley JM, Smith R Jr, Moore JC (1999) Preliminary survey of chemical contaminants in water, sediment, and aquatic biota at selected sites in Northeastern Florida Bay and canal C-111. Gulf Mex Sci 17:1–16Google Scholar
  34. Greve PA, Wit SL (1971) Endosulfan in the Rhine river. J Water Pollut Control Fed 43:2338–2348Google Scholar
  35. Hall LW, Anderson RD (2003) Parametric and probabilistic analysis of historical chlorpyrifos surface water monitoring data from the San Joaquin River watershed: 1991–2001. Water Air Soil Pollut 150:275–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hansen DJ, Cripe GM (1991) Interlaboratory comparison of the early life-stage toxicity test using sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). In: Mayes MA, Barron MG (eds) Aquatic toxicology and risk assessment, vol 14, ASTM STP 1124, Philadelphia, PA, pp 354–375Google Scholar
  37. Hardy IAJ (2001) Endosulfan: field soil dissipation study in Spain. Aventis Crop Science Study 26644Google Scholar
  38. Harman-Fetcho JA, Hapeman CJ, McConnell LL, Potter TL, Rice CP, Sadeghi AM, Smith RD, Bialek K, Sefton KA, Schaffer BA, Curry R (2005) Pesticide occurrence in selected South Florida canals and Biscayne Bay during high agricultural activity. J Agric Food Chem 53:6040–6048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harner T, Pozo K, Gouin T, MacDonald AM, Hung H, Cainey J, Peters A (2006) Global pilot study for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using PUF disk passive air samplers. Environ Pollut 144:445–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hose GC, Van den Brink PJ (2004) Confirming the species-sensitivity distribution concept for endosulfan using laboratory, mesocosm, and field data. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 47:511–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hose GC, Wilson SP (2005) Toxicity of endosulfan to Paratya australiensis Kemp (Decapoda: Atyidae) and Jappa kutera Harker (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) in field-based tests. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 75:882–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hose GC, Lim RP, Hyne RV, Pablo F (2002) A pulse of endosulfan-contaminated sediment affects macroinvertebrates in artificial streams. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 51:44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hose GC, Lim RP, Hyne RV, Pablo F (2003) Short-term exposure to aqueous endosulfan affects macroinvertebrate assemblages. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 56:282–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jergentz S, Mugni H, Bonetto C, Schulz R (2004) Runoff-related endosulfan contamination and aquatic macroinvertebrate response in rural basins near Buenos Aires, Argentina. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 46:345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson WW, Finley MT (1980) Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Resource publication 137, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, pp 1–98Google Scholar
  46. Laabs V, Wehrhan A, Pinto A, Dores E, Amelung W (2007) Pesticide fate in tropical wetlands of Brazil: an aquatic microcosm study under semi-field conditions. Chemosphere 67:975–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. LaPoint T, Rodgers J Jr, Delphino J, Atkeson T, McCutcheon S (1998) Advisory panel report on the Workshop on Ecological Risk of Toxic Substances in South Florida Ecosystems, Roz and Cal Kovens Conference Center; Florida International University, Florida, 20–21 October 1998, p 20Google Scholar
  48. Larson SJ, Capel PD, Majewski MS (1997) Pesticides in surface waters: distribution, trends, and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, MIGoogle Scholar
  49. Lehotay SJ, Harman-Fetcho JA, McConnell LL (1998) Agricultural pesticide residues in oysters and water from two Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Mar Pollut Bull 37:32–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leight AK, Van Dolah RF (1999) Acute toxicity of the insecticides endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and malathion to the epibenthic estuarine amphipod Gammarus palustris (Bousfield). Environ Toxicol Chem 18:958–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leight AK, Scott GI, Fulton MH, Daugomah JW (2005) Long term monitoring of grass shrimp Palaemonetes spp. population metrics at sites with agricultural runoff influences. Integr Comp Biol 45:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leonard AW, Hyne RV, Lim RP, Chapman JC (1999) Effect of endosulfan runoff from cotton fields on macroinvertebrates in the Namoi river. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 42:125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Leonard AW, Hyne RV, Lim RP, Pablo F, Van den Brink PJ (2000) Riverine endosulfan concentrations in the Namoi River, Australia: link to cotton field runoff and macroinvertebrate population densities. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:1540–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Long ER, Hameedi MJ, Sloane GM, Read LB (2002) Chemical contamination, toxicity, and benthic community indices in sediments of the lower Miami river and adjoining portions of Biscayne Bay, Florida. Estuaries 25:622–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mayer FL Jr, Ellersieck MR (1986) Manual of acute toxicity: Interpretation and database for 410 chemicals and 66 species of freshwater animals. Resource Publication 160, United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  56. McIvor CC, Ley JA, Bjork RD (1997) Changes in freshwater inflow from the Everglades to Florida Bay including effects on biota and biotic processes: a review. In: Davis SM, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucie Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 117–146Google Scholar
  57. Miles CJ, Pfeuffer RJ (1997) Pesticides in canals of south Florida. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:337–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Muir DC, Teixeira C, Wania F (2004) Empirical and modeling evidence of regional atmospheric transport of current-use pesticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:2421–2432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (NRA) (1998) NRA review of endosulfan. NRA, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  60. National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) (1975) Endosulfan: its effects on environmental quality. NRCC publication no. 14098, NRC Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality, Subcommittee on Pesticides and Related Compounds, Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  61. Ney RE Jr (1998) Fate and transport of organic chemicals in the environment: a practical guide, 3rd edn. Government Institutes, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
  62. Nowell LH, Capel PD, Dileanis PD (1999) Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends and governing factors. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  63. Odenkirchen EW, Eisler R (1988) Chlorpyrifos hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic review. Biological Report 85, US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, 34 ppGoogle Scholar
  64. Pait AS, DeSouza AE, Farrow DRG (1992) Agricultural pesticide use in coastal areas: a national summary. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
  65. Parkpian P, Anurakpongsatorn P, Pakkong P, Patrick WH Jr (1998) Adsorption, desorption and degradation of alpha-endosulfan in tropical soils of Thailand. J Environ Sci Health B 33:211–233Google Scholar
  66. Peterson SM, Batley GE (1993) The fate of endosulfan in aquatic ecosystems. Environ Pollut 82:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pfeuffer RJ (1985) Pesticide residue monitoring in sediment and surface water within the South Florida water management district. Technical publication 85-2, South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), West Palm Beach, FLGoogle Scholar
  68. Pfeuffer RJ (1991) Pesticide residue monitoring in sediment and surface water within the South Florida water management district, volume 2. Technical publication 91-01, South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), West Palm Beach, FLGoogle Scholar
  69. Pfeuffer RJ, Rand GM (2004) South Florida ambient pesticide monitoring program. Ecotoxicology 13(3):195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pozo K, Harner T, Wania F, Muir DC, Jones KC, Barrie LA (2006) Toward a global network for persistent organic pollutants in air: results from the GAPS study. Environ Sci Technol 40:4867–4873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Racke KD (1993) Environmental fate of chlorpyrifos. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 131:1–150Google Scholar
  72. Robblee MB, Barber TR, Carlson PR Jr, Durako MJ, Fourqurean JW, Muehlstein LK, Porter D, Yarbro LA, Zieman RT, Zieman JC (1991) Mass mortality of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum in Florida Bay (USA). Mar Ecol Progr Ser 71:297–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rohr JR, Crumrine PW (2005) Effects of an herbicide and an insecticide on pond community structure and processes. Ecol Appl 15:1135–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ross P, Scott GI, Fulton MH, Strozier ED (1996) Immunoassays for rapid, inexpensive monitoring of agricultural chemicals. In: Richardson M (ed) Environmental xenobiotics. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 161–178Google Scholar
  75. Schimmel SC, Patrick AM Jr, Wilson AJ Jr (1977) Acute toxicity to and bioconcentration of endosulfan by estuarine animals. In: Mayer FL, Hamelink JL (eds) Aquatic toxicology and hazard evaluation, 1st symposium, AST STP 634, Philadelphia, PA, pp 241–252Google Scholar
  76. Schulz R (2003) Using a freshwater amphipod in situ bioassay as a sensitive tool to detect pesticide effects in the field. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:1172–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schulz R (2004) Field studies on exposure, effects, and risk mitigation of aquatic nonpoint-source insecticide pollution: a review. J Environ Qual 33:419–448Google Scholar
  78. Schulz R, Peall SKC (2001) Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for retention of nonpoint-source pesticide pollution in the Lourens River catchment, South Africa. Environ Sci Technol 35:422–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schulz R, Peall SKC, Dabrowski JM, Reinecke AJ (2001a) Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the Lourens River, Western Cape, during the first rainfall event of the wet season. Water SA 27:65–70Google Scholar
  80. Schulz R, Peall SKC, Dabrowski JM, Reinecke AJ (2001b) Spray deposition of two insecticides into surface waters in a South African orchard area. J Environ Qual 30:814–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Science Subgroup (1996) South Florida ecosystem restoration: scientific information needs. A Science Subgroup report to the Working Group of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force, Miami, FLGoogle Scholar
  82. Scott GI, Fulton MH, Daugomah J, Strozier ED, Key PB, Pennington PL, Thompson BC, Wirth EF, Thayer G (1994) Monitoring of pesticides in surface waters of Florida Bay and adjacent agricultural watersheds: implications for future management of freshwater inputs to Florida Bay. U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SCGoogle Scholar
  83. Scott GI, Fulton MH, Wirth EF, Chandler GT, Key PB, Daugomah JW, Bearden D, Chung KW, Strozier ED, DeLorenzo M, Sivertsen S, Dias A, Sanders M, Macauley JM, Goodman LR, LaCroix MW, Thayer GW, Kucklick J (2002) Toxicological studies in tropical ecosystems: an ecotoxicological risk assessment of pesticide runoff in South Florida estuarine ecosystems. J Agric Food Chem 50:4400–4408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shen L, Wania F, Lei YD, Teixeixeira C, Muir DCG, Bidleman TF (2005) Atmospheric distribution and long-range transport behavior of organochlorine pesticides in North America. Environ Sci Technol 39:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shivaramaiah HM, Sanchez-Bayo F, Al-Rifai J, Kennedy IR (2005) The fate of endosulfan in water. J Environ Sci Health B 40:711–720Google Scholar
  86. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) (1994) Pesticide risk and mitigation: final report of the Aquatic Risk Assessment and Mitigation Dialogue Group. SETAC, Foundation for Environmental Education, Pensacola, FLGoogle Scholar
  87. Solomon KR, Baker DB, Richards RP, Dixon KR, Klaine SJ, La Point TW, Kendall RJ, Weisskopf CP, Giddings JM, Giesy JP, Hall LW Jr, Williams WM (1996) Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North American surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:31–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Suter GW II (1993) Ecological risk assessment. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  89. Suter GW II, Tsao CL (1996) Toxicological benchmarks for screening of potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota on Oak Ridge Reservation: 1996 revision. ES/ER/TM-96/R2, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 104 ppGoogle Scholar
  90. U.S.EPA (1980) Ambient water quality criteria for endosulfan. EPA 440/5-080-046, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  91. U.S.EPA (1985) Guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratories, Duluth, MNGoogle Scholar
  92. U.S.EPA (1994) Ecological incident information system. EPA 734-K-94-001Google Scholar
  93. U.S.EPA (1997) The incidence and severity of sediment contamination in surface waters of the United States, 3 volumes. EPA 823-R-97-006, -007, -008. September 1997Google Scholar
  94. U.S.EPA (1998) Guidelines for ecological risk assessment. EPA/630/R-95/002F. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  95. U.S.EPA (2000) Reregistration eligibility science for chlorpyrifos: fate and environmental risk assessment chapter. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  96. U.S.EPA (2001) National sediment quality survey. Database 1980 to 1999. MS Access 97 database files. Prepared by the EPA’s Office of Science and Technology, Standards and Health Protection Division (EPA-823-C-01-001)Google Scholar
  97. U.S.EPA (2002a) Environmental fate and ecological risk assessment for the reregistration eligibility decision on endosulfan (Thiodan®). DP Barcode D238673. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  98. U.S.EPA (2002b) National recommended water quality criteria (WQC): 2002. EPA/822/R-02/047. Office of Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  99. U.S.EPA (2007) Appendix 1 to 2007 addendum: environmental fate and ecological risk assessment of endosulfan. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Environmental Risk Branch V, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  100. Van den Brink PJ, van Wijngaarden RPA, Lucassen WGH, Brock TCM, Leeuwangh P (1996) Effects of the insecticide Dursban 4E (active ingredient chlorpyrifos) in outdoor experimental ditches: II. Invertebrate community responses and recovery. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:1143–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Wijngaarden RPA, van den Brink PJ, Crum SJH, Voshaar JHO, Brock TCM, Leeuwangh P (1996) Effects of the insecticide Dursban 4E (active ingredient chlorpyrifos) in outdoor experimental ditches: I. Comparison of short-term toxicity between the laboratory and the field. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:1133–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wan MT (1989) Levels of selected pesticides in farm ditches leading to rivers in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada. J Environ Sci Health B 24:183–203Google Scholar
  103. Wan MT, Szeto S, Price P (1995) Distribution of endosulfan residues in the drainage waterways of the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. J Environ Sci Health B 30:401–433Google Scholar
  104. Wan MT, Kuo JN, Buday C, Schroeder G, Van Aggelen G, Pasternak J (2005) Toxicity of alpha-, beta-, (alpha plus beta)-endosulfan and their formulated and degradation products to Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and biological implications in streams. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:1146–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang JD, Daddio E, Horwitz MD (1978) Canal discharges into south Biscayne Bay. Report to the Department of Environmental Resources Management, Metropolitan Dade County, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS), University of Miami, Miami, FLGoogle Scholar
  106. Ware G (1991) Fundamentals of pesticides: a self-instructional guide. Thompson Publications, Fresno, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  107. Wauchope RD, Buttler TM, Hornsby AG, Augustijn-Beckers PWM, Burt JP (1992) The SCS/ARS/CES pesticide properties database for environmental decision-making. In: Georage W (ed) Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 123:1–164Google Scholar
  108. Wirth EF, Lund SA, Fulton MH, Scott GI (2001) Determination of acute mortality in adults and sublethal embryo responses of Palaemonetes pugio to endosulfan and methoprene exposure. Aquat Toxicol 53:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. You J, Schuler LJ, Lydy MJ (2004) Acute toxicity of sediment-sorbed endrin, methoxychlor, and endosulfan to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 73:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhou M, Li YC, Nkedi-Kizza P, O’Hair SK (2003) Endosulfan losses through runoff and leaching from calcareous gravelly or marl soils. Vadose Zone J 2:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology & Risk Assessment Laboratory, Southeast Environmental Research CenterFlorida International UniversityNorth MiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations