, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 153–163 | Cite as

Oxidative stress biomarkers and heart function in bullfrog tadpoles exposed to Roundup Original®

  • Monica J. Costa
  • Diana A. Monteiro
  • Abilio L. Oliveira-Neto
  • Francisco T. Rantin
  • Ana L. Kalinin


Oxidative stress biomarkers, in vivo heart rate (f H), and contraction dynamics of ventricle strips of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana) tadpoles were evaluated after 48 h of exposure to a sub-lethal concentration (1 ppm) of the herbicide Roundup Original® (glyphosate 41%). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased in the liver and decreased in muscle, while oxidative damage to lipids increased above control values in both tissues, showing that the generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are involved in the toxicity induced by Roundup®. Additionally, tadpoles’ hyperactivity was associated with tachycardia in vivo, probably due to a stress-induced adrenergic stimulation. Ventricle strips of Roundup®-exposed tadpoles (R-group) presented a faster relaxation and also a higher cardiac pumping capacity at the in vivo contraction frequency, indicating that bullfrog tadpoles were able to perform cardiac mechanistic adjustments to face Roundup®-exposure. However, the lower maximal in vitro contraction frequency of the R-group could limit its in vivo cardiac performance, when the adrenergic-stimulation is present. The association between the high energetic cost to counteract the harmful effects of this herbicide and the induction of oxidative stress suggest that low and realistic concentrations of Roundup® can have an impact on tadpoles’ performance and success, jeopardizing their survival and/or population establishment.


Roundup® Oxidative stress biomarkers Cardiac contractility Bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeiana 



Bullfrog tadpoles were kindly provided by the Estrela breeding colony at Ibaté, São Paulo State, Brazil. The authors are thankful to the field technician Mr. Angelo Carnelosi for caring for the tadpoles in the laboratory. All the experiments were performed complying with the Brazilian laws.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica J. Costa
    • 1
  • Diana A. Monteiro
    • 2
  • Abilio L. Oliveira-Neto
    • 3
  • Francisco T. Rantin
    • 2
  • Ana L. Kalinin
    • 2
  1. 1.Campus of SorocabaFederal University of São CarlosSorocabaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Physiological SciencesFederal University of São CarlosSao CarlosBrazil
  3. 3.Center of High Technological EducationCampinas State UniversityLimeiraBrazil

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