The Effects of Coal Tar Based Pavement Sealer on Amphibian Development and Metamorphosis
- 223 Downloads
Coal tar based pavement sealers are applied regularly to parking lots and contain significant levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recently a connection between elevated levels of PAHs in streams and storm water runoff from parking lots has been identified. We tested the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement sealers could alter the survival, growth, and development of amphibians using a model species, Xenopus laevis. Ten fertilized individuals were placed singly into containers containing one of four treatment groups: control, low, medium, and high (respective nominal concentrations 0, 3, 30, and 300 ppm TPAH). All of the individuals in the high exposure group died by the sixth day of exposure. By day 14 there were significant patterns of stunted growth (p<0.0001) and slower development (p=0.006) in the medium and high exposure groups relative to the control and low treatment groups. When the experiment ended on day 52 the control and low-dose individuals had achieved more advanced developmental stages than the medium group (p=0.0007). These data indicate that these commonly used coal tar based pavement sealers may potentially affect the amphibian taxa living in areas that receive storm water runoff.
KeywordsPAHs Xenopus runoff non-point source pollution
The City of Austin Watershed Protection Department provided the coal tar pavement sealant flakes, the photograph of the sealant flakes, and the corresponding chemical data that made this project possible. Special thanks to Nancy McClintock and Mateo Scoggins of the City of Austin for keeping this project going. We would also like to thank Christina Byerly for assistance in the lab.
- Freese B., 2003 Coal: A Human History. Perseus Publishing Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
- Gallo, M.A. (2001). History and scope of toxicology. In C.D. Klassen (ed). Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th edn. NY: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing DivisionGoogle Scholar
- Klassen C.D., 2001 Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 6th edn. McGraw Hill New York, NYGoogle Scholar
- Mahler, B.J., Van Meter, P.C. and Wilson, J.T. (2004). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and major and trace elements in simulated rainfall runoff from parking lots, Austin, Texas, 2003. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1208. U.S. Department of the InteriorGoogle Scholar
- Nieuwkoop P.D., Faber J., 1994 Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin): A Systematical and Chronological Survey of the Development from the Fertilized Egg Till the End of Metamorphosis Garland Publisher New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Patterson, H.H., MacDonald, B., Fang, F., Cronan, C. (1996). Enhancement of the water solubility of organic pollutants such as pyrene by dissolved organic matter. In J.S. Gaffney, N.A. Marley, S.B. Clark (eds.), Humic and Fulvic Acids: Isolation, Structure, and Environmental Role, pp. 288–98. Washington DC: American Chemical SocietyGoogle Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2004). R: A language and environment for statistical computing, version 1.9.1. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, ISBN 3-900051-00-3, URL http://www.R-project.orgGoogle Scholar
- SealMaster (2002). Material safety data sheet for SealMaster coal tar pavement sealer product no. S1000: Sandusky, Ohio, prepared February 21, 2002Google Scholar
- STAR Inc. (1996). Material safety data sheet for Star Seal asphalt pavement sealer: Columbus, Ohio, prepared July 18, 1996Google Scholar
- Thami G.P., Sarkar R., 2002 Coal tar past, present and future Chem. Dermatol. 27, 99–103Google Scholar