De Economist

, Volume 164, Issue 2, pp 159–186 | Cite as

Native-Immigrant Gaps in Educational and School-to-Work Transitions in the 2nd Generation: The Role of Gender and Ethnicity

  • Stijn Baert
  • Frank W. Heiland
  • Sanders Korenman


We study how native-immigrant gaps in educational trajectories and school-to-work transitions vary by gender. Using longitudinal Belgian data and adjusting for family background and educational sorting, we find that second-generation immigrants, especially Turks and Moroccans, lag behind natives. In particular, we observe that immigrant students are less likely to finish secondary education or begin tertiary education on time. They are also less likely to transition into work successfully. These performance gaps are substantially larger for female immigrants. In addition, we study demographic behaviors to test the hypothesis that attributes the gender differences in educational and economic ethnic gaps to cultural differences between immigrants and natives.


Educational attainment School-to-work transitions  Dynamic selection bias Ethnic minorities Gender differentials Belgium 

JEL Classification

I24 J15 J16 J70 Z10 C35 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ghent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.University of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  3. 3.Université catholique de LouvainLouvainBelgium
  4. 4.IZABonnGermany
  5. 5.Baruch College School of Public AffairsThe City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.CUNY Institute for Demographic Research, The City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  7. 7.CUNY Institute for Demographic Research, The Graduate CenterNew YorkUSA
  8. 8.NBERCambridgeUSA

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