Advertisement

Adapting Social Emotional Multi-Tiered Systems of Supports for Kindergarten Classrooms

  • Elizabeth A. SteedEmail author
  • Dorothy Shapland
Article

Abstract

This conceptual article describes key considerations for elementary school personnel to ensure social emotional multi-tiered systems of supports (MTSS) are adapted for kindergarten classrooms. Kindergarten represents a unique developmental period of early childhood when 5 to 6-year-old children transition into formal schooling and experience a learning environment that places greater emphasis on children’s independence, adherence to routines, and academic goals. This increase in demands may place stress on children’s social emotional competencies. School personnel may find existing practices associated with their elementary schools’ social emotional MTSS have not been adapted to meet the developmental needs of kindergarteners; this article describes ways to adapt existing universal, targeted, and intensive social emotional supports for kindergarten. Key considerations for administrative personnel are presented.

Keywords

Social emotional Multi-tiered systems of support Kindergarten 

Notes

References

  1. Ahtola, A., Silinskas, G., Poikonen, P. L., Kontoniemi, M., Niemi, P., & Nurmi, J. E. (2011). Transition to formal schooling: Do transition practices matter for academic performance? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(3), 295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barton, E. E., Steed, E. A., Strain, P., Dunlap, G., Powell, D., & Payne, C. J. (2014). An analysis of classroom-based and parent-focused social–emotional programs for young children. Infants & Young Children, 27(1), 3–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berk, L. E. (2006). Looking at kindergarten children. In D. F. Gullo (Ed.), K Today: Teaching and learning in the kindergarten year (pp. 11–25). Washington DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.Google Scholar
  4. Bierman, K. L., & Motamedi, M. (2016). SEL programs for preschool children. In J. A. Durlek, C. E. Domitrovich, R. P. Weissberg, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of social emotional learning (pp. 135–150). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Binder, D., Lentini, R., & Steed, E. A. (in press). Expectations and rules. In M.L. Hemmeter, M. Ostrosky, & L. Fox (Eds.), Pyramid Model practices for early childhood settings. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Boden, L. J., Ennis, R. P., & Jolivette, K. (2012). Implementing Check In/Check Out for students with intellectual disability in self-contained classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(1), 32–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Bottiani, J. H., Debnam, K. J., Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., et al. (2018). Promoting cultural responsivity and student engagement through Double Check coaching of classroom teachers: An efficacy study. School Psychology Review, 47(2), 118–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 13(5), e1136–e1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caldarella, P., Williams, L., Hansen, B. D., & Wills, H. (2015). Managing student behavior with class-wide function-related intervention teams: An observational study in early elementary classrooms. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43(5), 357–365.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-014-0664-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell, A., & Anderson, C. M. (2011). Check-in/check-out: A systematic evaluation and component analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(2), 315–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cirelli, C. A., Sidener, T. M., Reeve, K. F., & Reeve, S. A. (2016). Using activity schedules to increase on-task behavior in children at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Education and Treatment of Children, 39(3), 283–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Committee for Children website. (n.d.). Second Step Program. Retrieved from http://www.cfchildren.org/.
  14. Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Kincaid, D., Wilson, K., Christiansen, K., Strain, P., et al. (2010). Prevent-teach-reinforce: A school-based model of individualized positive behavior support. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fallon, L. M., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. (2012). Consideration of culture and context in school-wide positive behavior support: A review of current literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Filter, K. J., McKenna, M. K., Benedict, E. A., Horner, R. H., Todd, A., & Watson, J. (2007). Check in/check out: A post hoc evaluation of an efficient, secondary-level targeted intervention for reducing problem behaviors in schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(1), 69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Floress, M. T., & Jacoby, A. L. (2017). The caterpillar game: A SW-PBIS aligned classroom management system. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 33(1), 16–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Forness, S. R., Freeman, S. F. N., Paparella, T., Kauffman, J. M., & Walker, H. M. (2012). Special education implications of point and cumulative prevalence for children with emotional or behavioral disorders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 20(1), 4–18.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1063426611401624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fox, L., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2009). A program-wide model for supporting social emotional development and addressing challenging behavior in early childhood setting. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 177–202). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fox, L., & Lentini, R. (2006). “You Got It!” teaching social and emotional skills. Young Children, 61(6), 36–42.Google Scholar
  22. Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., Goodman, S., Mitchell, B., George, H. P., Swain-Bradway, H., et al. (2017). PBIS technical brief on systems to support teachers’ imple-mentation of positive classroom behavior support. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.Google Scholar
  23. Garbacz, S. A., McIntosh, K., Vatland, C. H., Minch, D. R., & Eagle, J. W. (2018). Identifying and examining school approaches to family engagement within schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(3), 127–137.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717752318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. George, H. P., Kincaid, D., & Pollard-Sage, J. (2009). Primary-tier interventions and supports. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 375–394). Boston: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Greflund, S., McIntosh, K., Mercer, S. H., & May, S. L. (2014). Examining disproportionality in school discipline for Aboriginal students in schools implementing PBIS. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 29(3), 213–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heroman, C., & Copple, C. (2006). Teaching in the kindergarten year. In D. Gullo (Ed.), K-Today: Teaching in the Kindergarten Year. Washington DC: NAEYC.Google Scholar
  27. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on exceptional children, 42(8), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jeynes, W. (2012). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of different types of parental involvement programs for urban students. Urban Education, 47, 706–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kam, C. M., Greenberg, M. T., & Walls, C. T. (2003). Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the PATHS curriculum. Prevention Science, 4(1), 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee, P., & Bierman, K. L. (2015). Classroom and teacher support in kindergarten: Associations with the behavioral and academic adjustment of low-income students. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 61(3), 383–411.  https://doi.org/10.13110/merrpalmquar1982.61.3.0383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee, K., Bull, R., & Ho, R. (2013). Developmental changes in executive functioning. Child Development, 84(6), 1933–1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leverson, M., Smith, K., McIntosh, K., Rose, J., & Pinkelman, S. (2016). PBIS cultural responsiveness field guide: Resources for trainers and coaches. Office of Special Education Programs Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from http://www.pbis.org/school/equity-pbis.
  33. McIntosh, K., & Goodman, S. (2016). Integrated multi-tiered systems of support: Blending RTI and PBIS. New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  34. McIntosh, K., Mercer, S. H., Nese, R. N. T., Strickland-Cohen, M. K., Kittelman, A., Hoselton, R., et al. (2018). Factors predicting sustained implementation of a universal behavior support framework. Educational Researcher, 47(5), 307–316.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X18776975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mitchell, B. S., Stormont, M., & Gage, N. A. (2011). Tier two interventions implemented within the context of a tiered prevention framework. Behavioral disorders, 36(4), 241–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pianta, R. C., Barnett, W. S., Burchinal, M., & Thornburg, K. R. (2009). The effects of preschool education: What we know, how public policy is or is not aligned with the evidence base, and what we need to know. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10(2), 49–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pianta, R. C., Kraft-Sayre, M., Rimm-Kaufman, S., Gercke, N., & Higgins, T. (2001). Collaboration in building partnerships between families and schools: The National Center for Early Development and Learning’s kindergarten transition intervention. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 16(1), 117–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(01)00089-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Raver, S. A., Hester, P., Michalek, A. M., Cho, D., & Anthony, N. (2013). Impact of an activity mini-schedule on the inattention of preschoolers with cochlear implants during a group activity. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(2), 15–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Stormont, M. (2013). Classroom-level positive behavior supports in schools implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying areas for enhancement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reno, G. D., Friend, J., Caruthers, L., & Smith, D. (2017). Who’s getting targeted for behavioral interventions? Exploring the connections between school culture, positive behavior support, and elementary student achievement. The Journal of Negro Education, 86(4), 423–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Pianta, R. C. (2000). An ecological perspective on the transition to kindergarten: A theoretical framework to guide empirical research. Journal of applied developmental psychology, 21(5), 491–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sears, K. M., Blair, K. C., Iovannone, R., & Crosland, K. (2013). Using the prevent-teach-reinforce model with families of young children with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(5), 1005–1016.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1646-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steed, E. A. (2011). Adapting the behavior education program for preschool settings. Beyond behavior, 20(1), 37–41.Google Scholar
  44. Steed, E. A., Pomerleau, T. M., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Preschool-wide evaluation tool, research edition. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  45. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 62–83.Google Scholar
  46. Tillery, A. D., Varjas, K., Meyers, J., & Collins, A. S. (2010). General education teachers’ perceptions of behavior management and intervention strategies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 86–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Watson, K. J., & DiCarlo, C. F. (2016). Increasing completion of classroom routines through the use of picture activity schedules. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44(2), 89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Webster-Stratton, C., (1997). The Incredible Years Classroom Dinosaur Series. Incredible years.com, USA.Google Scholar
  49. Wills, H. P., Kamps, D., Hansen, B. D., Conklin, C., Bellinger, S., Neaderhiser, J., et al. (2010). The class–wide function–based intervention team (CW–FIT) program. Preventing School Failure, 54, 164–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wright, R. A., & McCurdy, B. L. (2011). Class-wide positive behavior support and group contingencies: Examining a positive variation of the good behavior game. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14, 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zimmerman, K. N., Ledford, J. R., & Barton, E. E. (2017). Using visual activity schedules for young children with challenging behavior. Journal of Early Intervention, 39(4), 339–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ColoradoDenverUSA
  2. 2.Metropolitan State UniversityDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations