Advertisement

Classifying Home-Based Child Care Providers: Validating a Typology of Providers’ Beliefs and Self-Reported Practices

  • Alison HooperEmail author
Article

Abstract

Although home-based child care is a widely-used form of non-parental child care, relatively little is known about the home-based provider workforce and their beliefs and practices related to children and families. This study validates a previously identified typology of listed home-based child care providers (Hooper and Hallam, Early Child Res Q 47:194–205, 2019). The typology categorizes providers based on their beliefs and self-reported practices, rather than by licensing status or other structural characteristics. The current study uses exploratory and confirmatory latent profile analysis (LPA) to categorize a statewide sample of home-based child care providers (n = 234). Results of the confirmatory LPA suggest that the original typology identified in previous analysis of a nationally representative sample—Educationally Focused, Educationally Aware, and Caregiver profiles—fit the data well. However, an additional profile of Highly Engaged providers emerged in the exploratory analysis. Using the results of the profile analyses, I discuss implications for designing and implementing quality improvement supports for home-based child care providers to support them in providing high-quality child care.

Keywords

Home-based child care Family child care Early childhood education Professional development 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The project described was supported by the OPRE Child Care Research Scholars Dissertation Grant, Grant Number 90YE0160, from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The author acknowledges Rena Hallam and Danielle Riser for their assistance with this project.

References

  1. Acock, A. C. (2012). What to do about missing values. In H. Cooper (Ed.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 27–50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  2. Bargreen, K., Hooper, A., Hallam, R., Skrobot, C., Han, M., & Buell, M. (2015). The use of curriculum and implementation of learning activities in family child care settings. Poster presented at the 2015 NAEYC Professional Development Institute. New Orleans, Louisiana.Google Scholar
  3. Bassok, D., Fitzpatrick, M., Greenberg, E., & Loeb, S. (2016). Within- and between- sector quality differences in early childhood education and care. Child Development, 87(5), 1627–1645.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bromer, J., & Henly, J. R. (2009). The work–family support roles of child care providers across settings. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(3), 271–288.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bromer, J., & Korfmacher, J. (2017). Providing high-quality support services to home-based child care: A conceptual model and literature review. Early Education and Development, 28(6), 745–772.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2016.1256720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bromer, J., Van Haitsma, M., Daley, K., & Modigliani, K. (2009). Staffed support networks and quality in family child care: Findings from the family child care network impact study. Chicago, IL: Herr Research Center for Children and Social Policy.Google Scholar
  7. Buell, M., Hooper, A., Hallam, R., & Han, M. (2018). A descriptive study of the relationship between literacy quality and global quality in family child care programs engaged in Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. Child Care & Youth Forum, 47(5), 725–745.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-018-9455-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clarke-Stewart, K. A., Vandell, D. L., Burchinal, M., O’Brien, M., & McCartney, K. (2002). Do regulable features of child-care homes affect children’s development? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17(1), 52–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(02)00133-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coley, R. L., Chase-Lansdale, P. L., & Li-Grining, C. P. (2001). Child care in the era of welfare reform: Quality, choices, and preferences. In Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study, Policy Brief no. 01–04. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  10. Desimone, L. M., Smith, T. M., & Frisvold, D. E. (2009). Survey measures of classroom instruction. Education Policy, 24(2), 267–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dillman, D. A. (2000). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method (Vol. 2). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Dowsett, C. J., Huston, A. C., Imes, L., & Gennetian, L. (2008). Structural and process features in three types of child care for children from high and low income families. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(1), 69–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.06.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Enders, C., & Bandalos, D. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 430–457.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0803_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Finch, W. H., & Bronk, K. C. (2011). Conducting confirmatory latent class analysis using Mplus. Structural Equation Modeling, 18(1), 132–151.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2011.532732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Forry, N., Iruka, I., Tout, K., Torquati, J., Susman-Stillman, A., Bryant, D., & Danera, M. (2013). Predictors of quality and child outcomes in family child care settings. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 893–904.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.05.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Geiser, C., Okun, M. A., & Grano, C. (2014). Who is motivated to volunteer? A latent profile analysis linking volunteer motivation to frequency of volunteering. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 56(1), 3–24.Google Scholar
  17. Hallam, R., Hooper, A., Bargreen, K., Buell, M., & Han, M. (2017). A two-state study of family child care engagement in Quality Rating and Improvement Systems: A mixed-methods analysis. Early Education and Development, 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2017.1303306.
  18. Hamm, K., Gault, B., & Jones-DeWeever, A. (2005). In our own backyards: Local and state strategies to improve the quality of family child care. Washington, DC: Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR).Google Scholar
  19. Hooper, A. (2018). Predictors of educational practices among a nationally representative sample of home-based child care providers. Child Care & Youth Forum, 47(5), 747–768.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-018-9456-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hooper, A., & Hallam, R. (2019). Identifying profiles of listed home-based child care providers based on their beliefs and self-reported practices. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 47, 194–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jung, T., & Wickrama, K. A. S. (2008). An introduction to latent class growth analysis and growth mixture modeling. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 302–317.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00054.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koh, S., & Neuman, S. B. (2009). The impact of professional development in family child care: A practice-based approach. Early Education and Development, 20(3), 537–562.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280902908841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kontos, S., Howes, C., Shinn, M., & Galinsky, E. (1995). Quality in family child care and relative care. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  24. Krumpal, I. (2013). Determinants of social desirability bias in sensitive surveys: A literature review. Quality & Quantity, 47(4), 2025–2047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McCabe, L. A., & Cochran, M. (2008). Can home visiting increase the quality of home-based child care? Findings from the Caring for Quality project (Research Brief No. 3). Ithaca: Cornell Early Childhood Program.Google Scholar
  26. McCutcheon, A. L. (2002). Basic concepts and procedures in single-and multiple-group latent class analysis. In J. A. Hagenaars & A. L. McCutcheon (Eds.), Applied latent class analysis (pp. 56–88). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morrissey, T. W., & Banghart, P. (2007). Family child care in the United States. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty.Google Scholar
  28. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  29. National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance. (2015). Research brief #2: Trends in family child care home licensing regulations and policies for 2014. Washington DC: Office of Child Care, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  30. National Survey of Early Care and Education Project Team. (2013). Number and characteristics of early care and education (ECE) teachers and caregivers: Initial findings from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE) (OPRE Report No. 2013-38). Washington DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  31. National Survey of Early Care and Education Project Team. (2015a). Fact Sheet: Who is providing home-based early care and education? (OPRE Report No. 2015-43). Washington DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  32. National Survey of Early Care and Education Project Team. (2015b). Fact sheet: Provision of early care and education during non-standard hours (OPRE Report No. 2015-44). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  33. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2004). Type of child care and children’s development at 54 months. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19(2), 203–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2004.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 535–569.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701575396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ota, C. L., & Austin, A. M. B. (2013). Training and mentoring: Family child care providers’ use of linguistic inputs in conversations with children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 972–983.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Phillips, B. M., & Morse, E. E. (2011). Family child care learning environments: Caregiver knowledge and practices related to early literacy and mathematics. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(3), 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Porter, T., Paulsell, D., Del Grosso, P., Avellar, S., Hass, R., & Vuong, L. (2010). A review of the literature on home-based child care: Implications for future directions. Princeton: Mathematica Policy Research.Google Scholar
  38. Porter, T., Reiman, K., Nelson, C., Sager, J., & Wagner, J. (2016). Quality in family child care networks: An evaluation of All Our Kin provider quality. Zero to Three, 36(4), 19–29.Google Scholar
  39. QRIS Compendium. (nd). QRIS compendium state profile reports. Retrieved from http://qriscompendium.org/.
  40. Rous, B., Singleton, P., Hooks, K., & Booth, A., & Gross, T. (2013). Kentucky’s 2013 child care market rate study. Lexington: Human Development Institute, University of Kentucky.Google Scholar
  41. Smith, S., Schneider, W. J., & Kreader, J. L. (2010). Features of professional development and on-site assistance in child care quality rating improvement systems: A survey of state-wide systems. Retrieved from National Center for Children in Poverty website: http://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:135705.
  42. Swartz, R. A., Wiley, A. R., Koziol, N. A., & Magerko, K. A. (2016). Psychosocial influences upon the workforce and professional development participation of family child care providers. Child & Youth Care Forum, 45(5), 781–805.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-016-9353-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tonyan, H. A., Nuttall, J., Torres, J., & Bridgewater, J. (2017). Engaging with quality improvement initiatives: A descriptive study of learning in the complex and dynamic context of everyday life for family child care providers. Early Education and Development, 28(6), 684–704.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2017.1305152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tout, K., Starr, R., Isner, T., Cleveland, J., Albertson-Junkans, L., Soli, M., & Quinn, K. (2011). Evaluation of parent aware: Minnesota’s quality rating and improvement system pilot: Final evaluation report. Minneapolis: Child Trends.Google Scholar
  45. Whitebook, M., Phillips, D., Bellm, D., Crowell, N., Almarez, M., & Jo, J. (2004). Two years in early care and education: A community portrait of quality and workforce stability. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Child Care Employment.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA

Personalised recommendations