Early Childhood Education Journal

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 643–653 | Cite as

Gender Differences in Turkish Early Childhood Teachers’ Job Satisfaction, Job Burnout and Organizational Cynicism

  • Ramazan SakEmail author


This study compares the job satisfaction, job burnout and organizational cynicism of 233 early childhood teachers, 141 female and 92 male, with special attention to gender differences. Data were collected using a personal information form, Job Satisfaction Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey and Organizational Cynicism Scale, and the data were analyzed via independent-samples t-testing and one-way between-groups MANOVA. Significant differences between the male and female teachers were found across all three of the variables of interest, with the males having a higher level of organizational cynicism and lower mean job satisfaction. Also, males’ job burnout was higher than females’. However, the magnitude of these differences was medium only in the case of job satisfaction, with all other effect sizes being small.


Gender Job satisfaction Job burnout Organizational cynicism Early childhood teachers 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.


  1. Ahmad, J., Al-Zboon, E., Alkhawaldeh, M. F., & Al-Khatib, A. (2018). Jordanian mothers’ and female preschool teachers’ perceptions of men working in preschools. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 26(1), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Adwan, F. E. Z., & Al-Khayat, M. M. (2017). Psychological burnout in early childhood teachers: Levels and reasons. International Education Studies, 10(1), 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altınkurt, Y., & Yılmaz, K. (2016). Relationship between teachers’ humor styles and their views on organizational cynicism. Sakarya University Faculty of Education Journal, 32, 122–143.Google Scholar
  4. Amasralı, A. (2016). Ortaokul ve lise matematik öğretmenlerinin örgütsel sinizm tutumları ile mesleki tükenmişlik düzeyleri arasındaki ilişki (Amasya İli Örneği) [The relationship between secondary school and high school mathematics teachersattitudes toward organizational cynicism and level of vocational burnout (City of Amasya for sample)], Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, L. B. (2011). Teacher diversity: Do male and female teachers have different self-efficacy and job satisfaction? Paper presented at the 33rd EGPA conference in Bucharest, 7–10 September.Google Scholar
  6. Atmaca, T. (2014). Okul yöneticilerinin kullandıkları güç türleri ile öğretmenlerin yaşadıkları yıldırma, örgütsel bağlılık ve örgütsel sinizm arasındaki ilişki [Relationship among the power types of school principalsand teachersmobbing, organizational commitment and organizational cynicism perception], Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Gazi University, Ankara.Google Scholar
  7. Beck-Chisholm, N. (2007). Job satisfaction of early childhood educators in Nova Scotia and their perceptions of the current daycare system in our province. Unpublished Master Thesis, Mount Saint Vincent University, Nova Scotia.Google Scholar
  8. Blase, J. J. (1982). A social-psychological grounded theory of teacher stress and burnout. Educational Administration Quarterly, 18, 93–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brownhill, S. (2015). The ‘brave’ man in the early years (0–8): Defining the ‘role model’. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 23(3), 370–379. Scholar
  10. Buchanan, J. (2010). May I be excused? Why teachers leave the profession. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 30(2), 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Çalışkan, K. (2016). Spor eğitimi veren yükseköğretim kurumlarındaki öğretim elemanlarının örgütsel sinizm algıları ile örgütsel bağlılıklarının araştırılması [The investigation of the perceptions of organizational cynism and organizational commitment of academic staff in higher education institutions providing sports education], Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla.Google Scholar
  12. Chan, D. W. (2003). Hardiness and its role in the stress-burnout relationship among prospective teachers in Hong Kong. Teacher and Teacher Education, 19, 381–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng, J.-N., & Chen, Y. (2011). The empirical study of the kindergarten teachers’ job satisfaction in Taiwan: Exploring the effect of the intrinsic demand, external reward, and organizational treatment. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 7(2), 127–132.Google Scholar
  14. Cherniss, C. (1980). Staff burn-out: Job stress in the human services. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  15. Clyde, M. (1993). Tertiary studentsperceptions of male workers in the early childhood field in Australia. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  16. Clyde, M. (1994). Men in early childhood: What do women think about it? Retrieved January10, 2018 from ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 370 711.
  17. Cohen, J. W. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  18. Conlon, L. (2014). Job satisfaction and stress of teaching professionals in DEIS and non DEIS schools and between primary and post-primary. Unpublished Masters Thesis. Dublin Business School, Dublin.Google Scholar
  19. Corbell, K. A., Osborne, J., & Reiman, A. J. (2010). Supporting and retaining beginning teachers: A validity study of the perceptions of success inventory for beginning teachers. Educational Research and Evaluation, 16(1), 75–96. Scholar
  20. Cushman, P. (2005). Let’s hear it from the males: Issues facing male primary school teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(3), 227–240. Scholar
  21. Dean, J. W., Brandes, J. P., & Dharwadkar, R. (1998). Organizational cynicism. The Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drudy, S. (2008). Gender balance/gender bias: The teaching profession and the impact of feminization. Gender and Education, 20(4), 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Emilsen, K., & Koch, B. (2010). Men and women in outdoor play – Changing the concepts of caring findings from Norwegian and Austrian research projects. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 18(4), 543–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ergen, S. (2015). Öğretmenlerin örgütsel sinizm düzeyleri ile örgütsel bağlılıkları arasındaki ilişki [Relationship between teachersorganizational cynicism and organizational commitment], Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Gazi University, Ankara.Google Scholar
  25. Ertürk, M. (2012). Özel ve devlet okullarında çalışan okul öncesi öğretmenlerin demografik değişkenlere bağlı olarak mesleki tükenmişlik ve anksiyete düzeylerinin karşılaştırılması [The comparison of occupational burnout and anxiety levels of kindergarten teachers working in private and government schools depending on demographic variables]. Unpublished Master Thesis, Maltepe University, İstanbul.Google Scholar
  26. Fagot, B. I. (1977). Preschool sex stereotyping: Effect of sex of teacher vs. training of teacher. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, Louisiana.Google Scholar
  27. Farquhar, S. (1997). Are male teachers really necessary? Retrieved January 10, 2018 from ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 417 821.
  28. Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burn-out. Journal of Social Issues, 30(1), 159–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gün, F., & Atanur Baskan, G. (2017). An investigation of the relationship between organizational cynicism and burnout regarding the perceptions of academicians. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 32(2), 361–379.Google Scholar
  30. Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 495–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heikkilä, M., & Hellman, A. (2017). Male preschool teacher students negotiating masculinities: A qualitative study with men who are studying to become preschool teachers. Early Child Development and Care, 187(7), 1208–1220. Scholar
  32. İnce, N. B., & Şahin, A. E. (2015). Maslach Tükenmişlik Envanteri-Eğitimci Formunu Türkçe’ye uyarlama çalışması [The adaptation study of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey to Turkish]. Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi [Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology], 6(2), 385–399.Google Scholar
  33. Jennett, H. K., Harris, S. L., & Mesibov, G. B. (2003). Commitment to philosophy, teacher efficacy, and burnout among teachers of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 583–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Johnson, S. P. (2008). The status of male teachers in public education today. Education Policy Brief, 6(4), 1–11.Google Scholar
  35. Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376–407. Scholar
  36. Karadağ, E., Kılıçoğlu, G., & ve Yılmaz, D. (2014). Organizational cynicism, school culture, and academic achievement: The study of structural equation modeling. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(1), 89–113.Google Scholar
  37. Karademir, M. (2016). Ortaokul öğretmenlerinin okul yönetiminde kayırmacılık algıları ile örgütsel sinizm arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi: İstanbul ili Pendik ilçesi örneği [Examining the relationship between the perceptions of favoritism of secondary school teachers and organizational cynism on school management: The example of Pendik in İstanbul], Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Istanbul Aydın University, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  38. Kelvin, S. (1986). Men in early childhood education. Retrieved October 10, 2017 from ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 288 651.
  39. Koç, M. (2015). İlköğretim öğretmenlerinin tükenmişlik düzeyleri ile sinizm arasındaki ilişki (Ağrı ili, Patnos ilçesi örneği). [The relationship between primary school teacher s’ burnout and cynicism (Agrı Patnos sample)], Unpublished Masters Thesis. Yeditepe University, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  40. Koch, B., & Farquhar, S. (2015). Breaking through the glass doors: Men working in early childhood education and Austria and New Zealand. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 23(3), 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Koyutürk, N., & Şahbaz, Ü (2015). Comparing levels of professional satisfaction in preschool teachers whose classes include or do not include a special-needs student. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(10), 1396–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kremer-Hayon, L., & Kurtz, H. (1985). The relation of personal and environmental variables to teacher burnout. Teaching and Teacher Education, 1(3), 243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kusma, B., Groneberg, D. A., Nienhaus, A., & Mache, S. (2012). Determinants of day care teachers’ job satisfaction. Central European Journal of Public Health, 29(3), 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kutanis, R., & Dikili, A. (2010). Değişim boyutunda örgütlerde sinizm. [Organizational cynicism in dimension of change], In D. E. Özler (Ed.), Örgütsel davranışta güncel konular [Current issues in organizational behavior] (pp. 269–285). Bursa: Ekin Basım Yayın Dağıtım.Google Scholar
  45. Kuzgun, Y., & Bacanlı, F. (2005). Psikolojik danışma ve rehberlikte kullanılan ölçekler [Scales used in counseling and guidance]. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.Google Scholar
  46. Kuzgun, Y., Sevim, A., S., & Hamamcı, Z. (1999). Developing a job satisfaction scale. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 2(11), 4–18.Google Scholar
  47. Lee, P. M. J., & Quek, C. L. (2017). Preschool teachers’ perceptions of school learning environment and job satisfaction. Learning Environments Research. Scholar
  48. Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297–1349). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  49. Lomas, T., Medina, J. C., Ivtzan, I., Rupprecht, S., & Eiroa-Orosa, F. J. (2017). The impact of mindfulness on the wellbeing and performance of educators: A systematic review of the empirical literature. Teaching and Teacher Education, 61, 132–141. Scholar
  50. Lorente, L., Salanova, M., Martinez, I., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Extension of the Job Demands Resources model in the prediction of burnout and engagement among teachers over time. Psycothema, 20, 354–360.Google Scholar
  51. Løvgren, M. (2016). Emotional exhaustion in day-care workers. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24(1), 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mahmood, S. M. R. (2017). Relationship between Preschool TeachersJob Burnout Level and Organizational Cynicism Attitudes. Unpublished Master Thesis. Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van.Google Scholar
  53. Maslach, C. (2003). Job burnout new directions in research and intervention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(5), 189–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2(2), 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. (1996). Maslach burnout inventory manual (3rd edn.). Mountain View, CA: CPP.Google Scholar
  56. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (2010). Maslach burnout inventory manual. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden.Google Scholar
  57. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mason, W. S. (1961). Beginning teacher: Status and career orientations. (Final report on the survey of new teachers in the public schools, 1956-57). Washington: U.S. Gov’t. Printing Office.Google Scholar
  59. MoNE. (2013). Okul öncesi eğitim programı. [The curricula of early childhood education]. Retrieved from
  60. National Education Statistics. (2017). National education statistics 2016/17. Ankara: Ministry of National Education.Google Scholar
  61. OECD (2012). Education at a glance 2012: OECD indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  62. Ostroff, C. (1992). The relationship between satisfaction, attitudes, and performance: An organizational level analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 963–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Owala, Z. M., Odongo, B., & Raburu, P. (2016). Motivational factors influencing teachers job performance in pre-school centres in Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development, 5(5), 121–132.Google Scholar
  64. Peeters, J., Rohrmann, T., & Emilsen, K. (2015). Gender balance in ECEC: Why is there so little progress? European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 23(3), 302–314. Scholar
  65. Pines, A. M. (2002). Teacher burnout: A psychodynamic existential perspective. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8(2), 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pines, A. M., & Aronson, E. (1988). Career burnout. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  67. Polanen, M. V., Colonnesi, C., Tavecchio, L. W. C., Blokhuis, S., & Fukkink, R. G. (2017). Men and women in childcare: A study of caregiver–child interactions. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 25(3), 412–424. Scholar
  68. Rentzou, K., & Ziganitidou, K. (2009). Greek male early childhood educators: Self and societal perceptions towards their chosen profession. Early Years, 29(3), 271–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rice, C. J., & Goessling, D. P. (2005). Recruiting and retaining male special education teachers. Remedial and Special Education, 26(6), 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rodriguez, E. (1997). What does gender have to do with it? (Male teachers in early childhood education). Retrieved May 21, 2017 from ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 415 979.
  71. Sağır, T., & Oğuz, E. (2012). Öğretmenlere yönelik örgütsel sinizm ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi [Developing of organizational cynicism scala for teachers]. International Journal of Human Sciences, 9(2), 1094–1106.Google Scholar
  72. Sak, R. (2005). Erkek okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin göreve başladıklarında karşılaştıkları durumlar ve bu öğretmenlerin velilerinin erkek okul öncesi öğretmenleri hakkındaki düşünceleri [The situation facing new male preschool teachers and the thoughts of the parents about male preschool teachers]. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Gazi University, Ankara.Google Scholar
  73. Sak, R. (2015). Comparison of self-efficacy between male and female pre-service early childhood teachers. Early Child Development and Care, 185(10), 1629–1640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sak, R., Şahin-Sak, I. T., & Yerlikaya, I. (2015). Behavior management strategies: Beliefs and practices of male and female early childhood teachers. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 23(3), 328–339. Scholar
  75. Sak, R., & Tezel-Şahin, F. (2012). Analysis of male preschool teachers’ thoughts regarding their careers. International Journal of Early Childhood Education, 18(1), 73–93.Google Scholar
  76. Salanova, M., Llorens, S., Garcia-Renedo, M., Burriel, R., Bresó, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2005). Toward a four-dimensional model of burnout: A multigroup factor-analytic study including depersonalization and cynicism. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65, 901–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sandberg, A., & Pramling-Samuelsson, I. (2005). An interview study of gender differences in preschool teachers’ attitudes toward children’s play. Early Childhood Education Journal, 32(5), 297–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Santiago, A. (1999). Male early childhood Montessori teachers: Why they chose to teach. Retrieved October 23, 2017 from ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 430 684.
  79. Shaham, D. (1991). Male teachers in early childhood education: Self & social perceptions. Retrieved May 11, 2017 from ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 366 417.
  80. Simbula, S., & Guglielmi, D. (2010). Depersonalization or cynicism, efficacy or inefficacy: What are the dimensions of teacher burnout? European Journal of Psychology of Education, 25(3), 301–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2009). Does school context matter? Relations with teacher burnout and job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 518–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1059–1069. Scholar
  83. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2015). Job satisfaction, stress and coping strategies in the teaching profession—What do teachers say? International Education Studies, 8(3), 181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  85. Stoeber, J., & Rennert, D. (2008). Perfectionism in school teachers: Relations with stress appraisals, coping styles, and burnout. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 21, 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Storli, R., & Hansen-Sandseter, E. B. (2017). Gender matters: Male and female ECEC practitioners’ perceptions and practices regarding children’s rough-and-tumble play (R&T). European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 25(6), 838–853. Scholar
  87. Sumsion, J. (1999). Critical reflections on the experiences of a male early childhood worker. Gender and Education, 11(4), 455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tezel-Şahin, F., & Sak, R. (2016). A comparative study of male and female early childhood teachers’ job satisfaction in Turkey. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44, 473–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Totenhagen, C. J., Hawkins, S. A., Casper, D. M., Bosch, L. A., Hawkey, K. R., & Borden, L. M. (2016). Retaining early childhood education workers: A review of the empirical literatüre. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 30(4), 585–599. Scholar
  90. Troesch, L. T., & Bauer, C. E. (2017). Second career teachers: Job satisfaction, job stress, and the role of self-efficacy. Teacher and Teacher Education, 67, 389–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vandenbroeck, M., & Peeters, J. (2008). Gender and professionalism: A critical analysis of overt and covert curricula. Early Child Development and Care, 178(7–8), 703–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wiest, L. R., Olive, M. L., & Obenchain, K. M. (2003). Men’s perceptions of their experiences as K-2 teachers. Equity & Excellence in Education, 36(1), 82–95. Scholar
  93. Yalçın, U. (2017). Araştırma görevlilerinin örgütsel sinizm algılarının işten ayrılma niyetine etkisi [The effect of organizational cynicism perception of research assistants on leave of employment intention], Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Atatürk University, Erzurum.Google Scholar
  94. Yaşar-Ekici, F. (2017). Evaluation of preschool teachers in terms of professional burnout. Journal of Social Sciences of Muş Alparslan University, 5(2), 425–446.Google Scholar
  95. Yayla, A., Sak, R., Şahin-Sak, İT., & Taşkın, N. (2017). Comparing the job satisfaction of hourly paid and salaried preschool teachers in Turkey. Education, 3–13, 1–11.Google Scholar
  96. Yılmaz-Toplu, N. (2012). Burnout levels of preschool and primary school teachers. Unpublished Master Thesis, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın.Google Scholar
  97. Yüksel, H. (2015). Örgütsel sinizm ve bağlılık arasındaki ilişki: İlk ve ortaokul öğretmenleri üzerinde bir araştırma [The relationship between organizational cynicism and commitment: An investigation about the primary and middle school teachers], Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir.Google Scholar
  98. Zhang, W. (2017). Male teachers in early childhood education: Why more men? A review of the literature. Culminating Projects in Child and Family Studies, 18, 1–37.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Early Childhood Education, Faculty of EducationVan Yüzüncü Yıl UniversityVanTurkey

Personalised recommendations