Using a Teacher Rating Scale of Language and Literacy Skills with Preschool Children of English-Speaking, Spanish-Speaking, and Bilingual Backgrounds
- 887 Downloads
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a teacher report measure, the Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL; Dickinson et al. in Teacher rating of oral language and literacy (TROLL): a research-based tool. Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2001) and a direct behavioral measure of language development, the Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4; Zimmerman et al. in Preschool Language Scale-4. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, 2002), among English-speaking (n = 210), Spanish-speaking (n = 34), and English/Spanish bilingual (n = 109) typically-developing preschool children. Three hundred and fifty-three preschool children who attended early childhood education programs in an urban area of the Southwestern United States participated. Preschool teachers completed the TROLL, and the PLS-4 was individually administered to the children at preschool centers. The TROLL and PLS-4 were significantly correlated for English-speaking children, but with small effect sizes noted. For Spanish-speaking children, the TROLL and the expressive subscale of the PLS-4 were not significant, and for bilingual children the TROLL and PLS-4 were not significant. English-speaking children scored higher on the TROLL than the Spanish-speaking and bilingual children. Finally, a higher proportion of Spanish-speaking and bilingual children received a TROLL score at or below the 10th percentile. Results suggest that the TROLL did not adequately capture typically developing children’s linguistic and literacy development in a uniform manner across language groups. Caution is recommended when relying upon a single instrument to describe the emergent literacy and language skills of preschool children from Spanish-speaking and bilingual backgrounds.
KeywordsLanguage development Literacy development Teacher report measure Preschool Bilingual
- Bhatia, T. K., & Ritchie, W. C. (1999). The bilingual child: Some issues and perspectives. In W. C. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of child language acquisition (pp. 569–646). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Brown, G., Scott-Little, C., Amwake, L., & Wynn, L. (2007). A review of methods and instruments used in state and local school readiness evaluations (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007–No. 004). Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast. Retrieved from http://www.ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Dickinson, D., McCabe, A., & Sprague, K. (2001). Teacher rating of oral language and literacy (TROLL): A research-based tool. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
- Dickinson, D., McCabe, A., & Sprague, K. (2003). Teacher rating of oral language and literacy (TROLL): Individualizing early literacy instruction with a standards-based rating tool. The Reading Teacher, 56, 554–564.Google Scholar
- Espinosa, L., & López, M. L. (2007). Assessment considerations for young English language learners across different levels of accountability. Commissioned paper for First 5 Los Angeles and the Pew Charitable Trusts’ Early Childhood Accountability Project. Retrieved from http://www.first5la.org.
- Farrington, A. L., & Lonigan, C. J. (2010, June). Validity and domain specificity of parent and teacher reports of preschool children’s academic competence. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Institute of Education Sciences Research Conference, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Bates, E., Thal, D., & Pethick, S. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(5, Serial No. 242). Retrieved from http://www.srcd.org/.
- Fortuny, K., Hernandez, D. J., & Chaudry, A. (2010). Young children of immigrants: The leading edge of America’s future. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
- Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system. Circle Pines, MD: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
- Hamayan, E. V., & Damico, J. S. (Eds.). (1991). Limiting bias in the assessment of bilingual students. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
- Hammer, C. S., Miccio, A. W., & Rodriguez, B. (2004). Bilingual language acquisition and the child socialization process. In B. Goldstein (Ed.), Bilingual language development and disorders in Spanish-English speakers. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
- Invernizzi, M. A., Sullivan, A., Meier, J. D., & Swank, L. (2004). Phonological awareness literacy screening: Preschool. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia.Google Scholar
- KewalRamani, A., Gilbertson, L., Fox, M. A., & Provasnik, S. (2007). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities (NCES 2007-039). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Maxwell, K. L., & Clifford, R. M. (2004). School readiness assessment. Young Children on the Web. Retrieved from: http://www.journal.naeyc.org/btj/200401/Maxwell.pdf.
- McLaughlin, B. (1984). Early bilingualism: Methodological and theoretical issues. In M. Paradis & Y. Lebrun (Eds.), Early bilingualism and child development (pp. 19–45). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
- National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2003). Early childhood curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation: Position statement. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/positionstatements.
- Paradis, J., Genesee, F., & Crago, M. B. (2011). Dual language development and disorders: A handbook on bilingualism and second language learning (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
- Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). Statistical portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2008. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
- Pitoniak, M. J., Young, J. W., Martiniello, M., King, T. C., Buteux, A., & Ginsburgh, M. (2009). Guidelines for the assessment of English language learners. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
- Rhodes, R. L., Ochoa, S. H., & Ortiz, S. O. (2005). Assessing culturally and linguistically diverse students: A practical guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Saluja, G., Scott-Little, C. & Clifford, R. M. (2000, Fall). Readiness for school: A survey of state policies and definitions. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 2(2). Retrieved from: http://www.ecrp.uiuc.edu/v2n2/saluja.html.
- Tabors, P. O. (2008). One child, two languages: A guide for early childhood educators of children learning English as a second language (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
- Wiig, E. H., Secord, W. A., & Samuel, E. (2004). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals preschool-second edition. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (1992). PLS-3: Preschool Language Scale-3. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (2002). PLS-4: Preschool Language Scale-4. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar