Advertisement

Using a Teacher Rating Scale of Language and Literacy Skills with Preschool Children of English-Speaking, Spanish-Speaking, and Bilingual Backgrounds

  • Barbara L. RodríguezEmail author
  • Mark Guiberson
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a teacher report measure, the Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL; Dickinson et al. in Teacher rating of oral language and literacy (TROLL): a research-based tool. Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2001) and a direct behavioral measure of language development, the Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4; Zimmerman et al. in Preschool Language Scale-4. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, 2002), among English-speaking (n = 210), Spanish-speaking (n = 34), and English/Spanish bilingual (n = 109) typically-developing preschool children. Three hundred and fifty-three preschool children who attended early childhood education programs in an urban area of the Southwestern United States participated. Preschool teachers completed the TROLL, and the PLS-4 was individually administered to the children at preschool centers. The TROLL and PLS-4 were significantly correlated for English-speaking children, but with small effect sizes noted. For Spanish-speaking children, the TROLL and the expressive subscale of the PLS-4 were not significant, and for bilingual children the TROLL and PLS-4 were not significant. English-speaking children scored higher on the TROLL than the Spanish-speaking and bilingual children. Finally, a higher proportion of Spanish-speaking and bilingual children received a TROLL score at or below the 10th percentile. Results suggest that the TROLL did not adequately capture typically developing children’s linguistic and literacy development in a uniform manner across language groups. Caution is recommended when relying upon a single instrument to describe the emergent literacy and language skills of preschool children from Spanish-speaking and bilingual backgrounds.

Keywords

Language development Literacy development Teacher report measure Preschool Bilingual 

References

  1. Bhatia, T. K., & Ritchie, W. C. (1999). The bilingual child: Some issues and perspectives. In W. C. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of child language acquisition (pp. 569–646). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, G., Scott-Little, C., Amwake, L., & Wynn, L. (2007). A review of methods and instruments used in state and local school readiness evaluations (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007–No. 004). Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast. Retrieved from http://www.ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.
  3. Cabell, S. Q., Justice, L. M., Zucker, T. A., & Kilday, C. R. (2009). Validity of teacher report for assessing the emergent literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 161–173. doi: 10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0052).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Dickinson, D., McCabe, A., & Sprague, K. (2001). Teacher rating of oral language and literacy (TROLL): A research-based tool. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  6. Dickinson, D., McCabe, A., & Sprague, K. (2003). Teacher rating of oral language and literacy (TROLL): Individualizing early literacy instruction with a standards-based rating tool. The Reading Teacher, 56, 554–564.Google Scholar
  7. Espinosa, L., & López, M. L. (2007). Assessment considerations for young English language learners across different levels of accountability. Commissioned paper for First 5 Los Angeles and the Pew Charitable Trusts’ Early Childhood Accountability Project. Retrieved from http://www.first5la.org.
  8. Farrington, A. L., & Lonigan, C. J. (2010, June). Validity and domain specificity of parent and teacher reports of preschool children’s academic competence. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Institute of Education Sciences Research Conference, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  9. Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Bates, E., Thal, D., & Pethick, S. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(5, Serial No. 242). Retrieved from http://www.srcd.org/.
  10. Fortuny, K., Hernandez, D. J., & Chaudry, A. (2010). Young children of immigrants: The leading edge of America’s future. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  11. Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system. Circle Pines, MD: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  12. Guiberson, M. (2009). Hispanic representation in special education: Patterns and implications. Preventing School Failure, 53, 167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gutierrez-Clellen, V. F., & Kreiter, J. (2003). Understanding child bilingual acquisition using parent and teacher reports. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 267–288. doi: 10.1017.s0142716403000158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hamayan, E. V., & Damico, J. S. (Eds.). (1991). Limiting bias in the assessment of bilingual students. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  15. Hammer, C. S., Miccio, A. W., & Rodriguez, B. (2004). Bilingual language acquisition and the child socialization process. In B. Goldstein (Ed.), Bilingual language development and disorders in Spanish-English speakers. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  16. Invernizzi, M. A., Sullivan, A., Meier, J. D., & Swank, L. (2004). Phonological awareness literacy screening: Preschool. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia.Google Scholar
  17. Justice, L. M., & Ezell, H. K. (2001). Word and print awareness in 4-year-old children. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 17(3), 207–225. Retrieved from http://www.clt.sagepub.com/.Google Scholar
  18. KewalRamani, A., Gilbertson, L., Fox, M. A., & Provasnik, S. (2007). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities (NCES 2007-039). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  19. Lonigan, C. J., & Purpura, D. J. (2009). Conners’ teacher rating scale for preschool children: A revised, brief, age-specific measure. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(2), 263–272. doi: 10.1080/1537441080269844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maxwell, K. L., & Clifford, R. M. (2004). School readiness assessment. Young Children on the Web. Retrieved from: http://www.journal.naeyc.org/btj/200401/Maxwell.pdf.
  21. McLaughlin, B. (1984). Early bilingualism: Methodological and theoretical issues. In M. Paradis & Y. Lebrun (Eds.), Early bilingualism and child development (pp. 19–45). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  22. Murray, D. S., Ruble, L. A., Willis, H., & Molloy, C. A. (2009). Parent and teacher report of social skills in children with autism spectrum disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2003). Early childhood curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation: Position statement. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/positionstatements.
  24. Paradis, J., Genesee, F., & Crago, M. B. (2011). Dual language development and disorders: A handbook on bilingualism and second language learning (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Peña, E. D., Bedore, L. M., & Rappazzo, C. (2003). Comparison of Spanish, English, and bilingual children’s performance across semantic tasks. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in the Schools, 34, 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). Statistical portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2008. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  27. Pitoniak, M. J., Young, J. W., Martiniello, M., King, T. C., Buteux, A., & Ginsburgh, M. (2009). Guidelines for the assessment of English language learners. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  28. Rhodes, R. L., Ochoa, S. H., & Ortiz, S. O. (2005). Assessing culturally and linguistically diverse students: A practical guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  29. Saluja, G., Scott-Little, C. & Clifford, R. M. (2000, Fall). Readiness for school: A survey of state policies and definitions. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 2(2). Retrieved from: http://www.ecrp.uiuc.edu/v2n2/saluja.html.
  30. Tabors, P. O. (2008). One child, two languages: A guide for early childhood educators of children learning English as a second language (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Wiig, E. H., Secord, W. A., & Samuel, E. (2004). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals preschool-second edition. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
  32. Williams, C. (2006). Teacher judgments of the language skills of children in the early years of schooling. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 22(2), 135–154. doi: 10.1191/0265659006ct304oa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (1992). PLS-3: Preschool Language Scale-3. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  34. Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (2002). PLS-4: Preschool Language Scale-4. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Speech and Hearing SciencesUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.University of WyomingLaramieUSA

Personalised recommendations