Teachers’ Use of Scaffolding Strategies During Read Alouds in the Preschool Classroom
- 3.5k Downloads
Relatively little is known regarding preschool teachers’ use of specific scaffolds, including those high support scaffolds (e.g., co-participating, eliciting, reducing choices) that may be important for children who are struggling to acquire language and literacy concepts. The goal of this study was to characterize preschool teachers’ use of six types of scaffolds (generalizing, reasoning, predicting, co-participating, reducing choices, eliciting; see O’Connor et al. in Ladders to literacy, Paul H. Brookes Publishing, Baltimore, MD, 2005) within the whole group read aloud session. Two specific questions were addressed: (1) To what extent do preschool teachers use high and low support scaffolds during whole group read aloud sessions? and (2) To what extent does preschool teachers’ perceived frequency of use of specific scaffolds correspond to their actual use of scaffolds? Videotaped classroom observations were carried out for five preschool teachers conducting whole group read alouds in their classrooms; frequency of use for six types of scaffolds was coded using systematic observation procedures. Results indicated that teachers showed a preference for three types of scaffolds, all of which were low support, and that the three types of high support scaffolds occurred at very low rates. Additionally, results showed a substantial discrepancy between teachers’ perceived frequency of use of specific types of scaffolds relative to their actual use. Together, findings suggest that preschool teachers may benefit from professional development focused on using a range of scaffolds, to include high support scaffolds beneficial to children who may need high levels of support to participate in read alouds.
KeywordsScaffolding Read aloud Preschool Emergent literacy
This research was supported by Grant R30SA080459 from the U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. We would like to thank the program administrators, research assistants, teachers, and children who made this study possible.
- Baumann, J. F., & Bergeron, B. S. (1993). Story map instruction using children’s literature: Effects on first graders’ comprehension of central narrative elements. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25, 407–437.Google Scholar
- Berk, L. E., & Winsler, A. (1999). Scaffolding children’s learning: Vygotsky and early childhood education. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.Google Scholar
- Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2007). Tools of the mind: The Vygotskian approach to early childhood education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.Google Scholar
- Brett, J. (1989). The Mitten. New York, NY: Scholastic.Google Scholar
- Bus, A. G. (2001). Joint caregiver-child storybook reading: A route to literacy development. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 1, pp. 179–191). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Cabell, S. Q., Justice, L. M., Konold, T. R., & McGinty, A. S. (2009). Profiles of emergent literacy skills among preschool children who are at risk for academic difficulties. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
- Cazden, C. B. (1988). Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Dickinson, D. K., & Tabors, P. O. (2001). Beginning literacy with language. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
- Heath, S. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Henderson, S. D., Many, J. E., Wellborn, H. P., & Ward, J. (2002). How scaffolding nurtures the development of young children’s literacy repertoire: Insiders’ and outsiders’ collaborative understandings. Reading Research and Instruction, 41(4), 309–330.Google Scholar
- National Center for Education Statistics. (2008). The condition of education 2007: Indicator 2 Enrollment in early childhood education programs. http://nces.ed/gov. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- National Early Literacy Panel. (2008). Developing early literacy. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.Google Scholar
- Norris, J. A., & Hoffman, P. R. (1990). Language intervention within naturalistic environments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 21(2), 72–84.Google Scholar
- O’Connor, R. E., Notari-Syverson, A., & Vadasy, P. F. (2005). Ladders to literacy. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
- Ohio Department of Education. (2008). Early learning content standards. http://www.ode.state.oh.us/GD. Retrieved 14 November 2008.
- Olswang, L. B., Bain, B. A., & Johnson, G. A. (1992). Using dynamic assessment with children with language disorders. In S. F. Warren & J. E. Reichle (Eds.), Causes and effects in communication and language intervention (pp. 187–215). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
- Pellegrini, A. D., & Galda, L. (1991). Longitudinal relations among preschoolers’ symbolic play, metalinguistic verbs and emergent literacy. In J. Christie (Ed.), Play and early literacy development (pp. 47–68). Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
- Pellegrini, A. D., & Galda, L. (2003). Joint reading as a context: Explicating the way context is created by participants. In A. van Kleeck, A. A. Stahl, & E. B. Bauer (Eds.), On reading books to children: Parents and teachers (pp. 321–325). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Pressley, M., Hogan, K., Wharton-McDonald, R., Mistretta, J., & Ettenberger, S. (1996). The challenges of instructional scaffolding: The challenges of instruction that supports student thinking. Special Issue: Constructivism and Students with Special Needs: Issues in the Classroom, 11(3), 138–146.Google Scholar
- Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Sulzby, E., & Teale, W. (1996). Emergent literacy. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 727–757). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Teale, W. H. (2003). Reading aloud to young children as a classroom instructional activity: Insights from research and practice. In A. van Kleeck, A. A. Stahl, & E. B. Bauer (Eds.), On reading books to children: Parents and teachers (pp. 114–139). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Tharp, R. G., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning, and schooling in social context. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- United States Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children & Families, Office of Head Start (2000). Head Start child outcomes framework. http://www.hsnrc.org. Retrieved 8 January 2008.
- van Kleeck, A. (2003). Research on book sharing: Another critical look. In A. van Kleeck, A. A. Stahl, & E. B. Bauer (Eds.), On reading books to children: Parents and teachers (pp. 271–320). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Whitehurst, G. J., & Lonigan, C. J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69, 848–872.Google Scholar