Early Childhood Education Journal

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 543–549 | Cite as

Math Fluency: Accuracy Versus Speed in Preoperational and Concrete Operational First and Second Grade Children

  • Vanessa Ramos-Christian
  • Robert Schleser
  • Mary E. Varn


Cognitive abilities as well as math fluency play an important role in mathematical skills. Understanding the relationship between cognitive abilities and mathematical skills is imperative to teaching effective arithmetic skills. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and math fluency with 38 first and second grade elementary aged children. Results demonstrate that preoperational children lacked the speed of concrete operational children but achieved comparable levels of accuracy when completing arithmetic problems.


Child development Arithmetic Math fluency Academic achievement Childhood education 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanessa Ramos-Christian
    • 1
  • Robert Schleser
    • 1
  • Mary E. Varn
    • 1
  1. 1.PsychologyIllinois Institute of TechnologyChicagoUSA

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