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Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 100, Issue 1, pp 1–16 | Cite as

Population genetic structure of the Amazonian black flannelmouth characin (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae: Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz, 1829): contemporary and historical gene flow of a migratory and abundant fishery species

  • Valéria Nogueira Machado
  • Stuart C. Willis
  • Aylton S. Teixeira
  • Tomas Hrbek
  • Izeni Pires Farias
Article

Abstract

In the present study, sequences of the mtDNA control region (834 bp) were analyzed from 337 specimens of Prochilodus nigricans from sites along the main channel of the Amazonas River and three major tributaries, Madeira, Purus, and Juruá. The results of the analysis of molecular variance revealed that a large part of the genetic variation occurred within the populations analyzed (~85 %). Analysis with SAMOVA and Barriers suggested that the upper Madeira River and Purus Rivers had diverged genetically from the other samples, indicating restricted gene flow among these areas, while sites within the remaining range exhibited relatively little population structure. The high degree of structuring observed in the Madeira River basin population may be attributed to the presence of rapids along its upper course, while the genetic divergence found in the upper Purus River suggests historical connection between the upper Purus and upper Madeira Rivers followed by slow genetic drift due to large effective population sizes. However, given the life history and hypothesized evolutionary strategy of this species, we urge caution in interpreting that this targeted species is not at risk of overexploitation due to contemporary abundance. In order to preserve genetic diversity, we recommend enforcement of management regimes for regional stocks.

Keywords

Curimatã Control region Amazon basin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the MCT/CNPq/PPG7 557090/2005-9, CNPq/CT-Amazonia 554057/2006-9 and CNPq/ CT-Amazonia 575603/2008-9. Brazilian permits for field collection and molecular analyses were given by IBAMA/SISBIO 11325-1. TH and IPF were supported by a Bolsa de Pesquisa scholarship from CNPq during the study and VM by a CNPq fellowship. This study is part of VM’s Master’s thesis in the Fisheries Sciences in the Tropics graduate program of UFAM.

Supplementary material

10641_2016_547_Fig4_ESM.gif (669 kb)
Supplemental Figure 1.

Haplotype network of Prochilodus nigricans haplotypes estimated using Network. Circle sizes correspond to the number of observations, and missing haplotypes remain unfilled. Shading refers to the locality in which a haplotype was observed. (GIF 668 kb)

10641_2016_547_MOESM1_ESM.tif (1.8 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 1824 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valéria Nogueira Machado
    • 1
  • Stuart C. Willis
    • 2
  • Aylton S. Teixeira
    • 3
  • Tomas Hrbek
    • 1
  • Izeni Pires Farias
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Evolução e Genética Animal (LEGAL)Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM)ManausBrazil
  2. 2.Marine Genomics Lab, Department of Life SciencesTexas A&M University-Corpus ChristiCorpus ChristiUSA
  3. 3.Coordenação de Pesquisas em Biologia Aquática (CPBA)Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA)ManausBrazil

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