Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 99, Issue 12, pp 949–967 | Cite as

Contrasting patterns in growth and survival of Central Valley fall run Chinook salmon related to hatchery and ocean conditions

  • Megan C. Sabal
  • David D. Huff
  • Mark J. Henderson
  • Jerome Fiechter
  • Jeffrey A. Harding
  • Sean A. Hayes


The objective of this study was to determine important ocean and hatchery covariates influencing early growth and survival of Central Valley fall run Chinook salmon. We used a dataset of recaptured coded wire tagged hatchery Chinook salmon to estimate early growth and cohort survival. Ocean conditions during the period of early ocean entry were based on output from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model configured for the broader California Current region. We built generalized additive and generalized linear models to describe growth and survival and used Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) model selection to determine which hatchery and ocean covariates related best to response variables. With regards to hatchery covariates, growth was best explained by release location, while survival was best explained by release weight and hatchery of origin. The ocean conditions included in the best models for both growth and survival included diatoms, predatory zooplankton, temperature, and currents. We observed the highest rates of salmon survival when in situ physical ocean conditions were indicative of relaxation events. For all four ocean covariates, the response curves illustrated opposite patterns between growth and survival models. This result implies that during periods of low survival, juvenile salmon were either 1) growing at a faster rate, or 2) growth appeared to increase because smaller fish had a higher mortality rate than larger fish. The first explanation would imply density-dependence, whereas the second explanation would imply size-selective mortality. These alternatives have implications on hatchery practices including salmon size at release and number of salmon in release groups.


Growth Survival Chinook salmon California Size-selective mortality Density-dependence 

Supplementary material

10641_2016_536_MOESM1_ESM.docx (23 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 23 kb)


  1. Adrean LJ, Roby DD, Lyons DE, Collis K, Evans AF (2012) Potential effects of management on Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia predation on juvenile salmonids at a colony in San Francisco Bay, California. Trans Am Fish Soc 141:1682–1696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agler BA, Ruggerone GT, Wilson LI, Mueter FJ (2013) Historical growth of Bristol Bay and Yukon River, Alaska chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in relation to climate and inter- and intraspecific competition. Deep Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 94:165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainley DG, Dugger KD, Ford RG, Pierce SD, Reese DC, Brodeur RD, Tynan CT, Barth JA (2009) Association of predators and prey at frontal features in the California current: competition, facilitation, and co-occurrence. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 389:271–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvarez D, Nicieza AG, Oviedo D (2003) Predator avoidance behaviour in wild and hatchery-reared brown trout: the role of experience and domestication. J Fish Biol 63:1565–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson CD, Roby DD, Collis K (2004) Foraging patterns of male and female double- crested cormorants nesting in the Columbia River estuary. Can J Zool 82:541–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atcheson M (2010) Interannual variation in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diet, growth and consumption in North Pacific marine ecosystems. University of WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker PF, Speed TP, Ligon FK (1995) Estimating the influence of temperature on the survival of Chinook salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:855–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banas NS, MacCready P, Hickey BM (2009) A model study of tide- and wind-induced mixing in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Cont Shelf Res 29:278–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barton K (2015) Package MuMIn: Multi-Model InferenceGoogle Scholar
  10. Beamish RJ, Mahnken C (2001) A critical size and period hypothesis to explain natural regulation of salmon abundance and the linkage to climate and climate change. Prog Oceanogr 49:423–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beamish RJ, Sweeting RM, Lange KL, Neville CM (2008) Changes in the population ecology of hatchery and wild Coho salmon in the strait of Georgia. Trans Am Fish Soc 137:503–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beckman BR, Shimizu M, Gadberry BA, Parkins PJ, Cooper KA (2004) The effect of temperature change on the relations among plasma IGF-I, 41-kDa IGFBP, and growth rate in postsmolt coho salmon. Aquaculture 241:601–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berejikian BA, Larsen DA, Swanson P, Moore ME, Tatara CP, Gale WL, Pasley CR, Beckman BR (2012) Development of natural growth regimes for hatchery-reared steelhead to reduce residualism, fitness loss, and negative ecological interactions. Environ Biol Fish 94:29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buchanan RA, Skalski JR, Brandes PL, Fuller A (2013) Route use and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon through the San Joaquin River delta. North Am J Fish Manag 33:216–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burla M, Baptista AM, Casillas E, Williams JG, Marsh DM (2010) The influence of the Columbia River plume on the survival of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): a numerical exploration. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 67:1671–1684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach, second. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Centurioni LR, Ohlmann JC, Niiler PP (2008) Permanent meanders in the California current system. J Phys Oceanogr 38:1690–1710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Claiborne AM, Fisher JP, Hayes SA, Emmett RL (2011) Size at release, size-selective mortality, and age of maturity of Willamette River hatchery yearling Chinook salmon. Trans Am Fish Soc 140:1135–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooney RT, Allen JR, Bishop MA, Eslinger DL, Kline T, Norcross BL, McRoy CP, Milton J, Olsen J, Patrick V, Paul AJ, Salmon D, Scheel D, Thomas GL, Vaughan SL, Willette TM (2001) Ecosystem control of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William sound, Alaska. Fish Oceanogr 10:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Croll DA, Marinovic B, Benson S, Chavez FP, Black N, Ternullo R, Tershy BR (2005) From wind to whales: trophic links in a coastal upwelling system. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 289:117–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crook KA, Davoren GK (2014) Underwater behaviour of common murres foraging on capelin: influences of prey density and antipredator behaviour. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 501:279–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daly EA, Brodeur RD, Weitkamp LA (2009) Ontogenetic shifts in diets of juvenile and subadult Coho and Chinook salmon in coastal marine waters: important for marine survival? Trans Am Fish Soc 138:1420–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daly EA, Brodeur RD, Fisher JP, Weitkamp LA, Teel DJ, Beckman BR (2011) Spatial and trophic overlap of marked and unmarked Columbia River basin spring Chinook salmon during early marine residence with implications for competition between hatchery and naturally produced fish. Environ Biol Fish 94:117–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daly EA, Auth TD, Brodeur RD, Peterson WT (2013) Winter ichthyoplankton biomass as a predictor of early summer prey fields and survival of juvenile salmon in the northern California current. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 484:203–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis KA, Banas NS, Giddings SN, Siedlecki SA, MacCready P, Lessard EJ, Kudela RM, Hickey BM (2014) Estuary-enhanced upwelling of marine nutrients fuels coastal productivity in the U.S. Pacific northwest. J Geophys Res Ocean 119:8778–8799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Robertis A, Morgan CA, Schabetsberger RA, Zabel RW, Brodeur RD, Emmett RL, Knight CM, Krutzikowksky GK, Casillas E (2005) Columbia River plume fronts. II. Distribution, abundance, and feeding ecology of juvenile salmon. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 299:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DeCesare NJ, Hebblewhite M, Robinson HS, Musiani M (2009) Endangered, apparently: the role of apparent competition in endangered species conservation. Anim Conserv 13:353–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dormann CF, Schymanski SJ, Cabral J, Chuine I, Graham C, Hartig F, Kearney M, Morin X, Römermann C, Schröder B, Singer A (2012) Correlation and process in species distribution models: bridging a dichotomy. J Biogeogr 39:2119–2131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duffy EJ, Beauchamp DA (2011) Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget sound, Washington. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 68:232–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Emmett RL, Krutzikowsky GK (2008) Nocturnal feeding of Pacific hake and jack mackerel off the mouth of the Columbia River, 1998-2004: implications for juvenile salmon predation. Trans Am Fish Soc 137:657–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Emmett RL, Sampson DB (2007) The relationships between predatory fish, forage fishes, and juvenile salmonid marine survival off the Columbia river: a simple trophic model analysis. Calif Coop Ocean Fish Investig Reports 48:92–105Google Scholar
  32. Emmett RL, Krutzikowsky GK, Bentley P (2006) Abundance and distribution of pelagic piscivorous fishes in the Columbia River plume during spring/early summer 1998–2003: relationship to oceanographic conditions, forage fishes, and juvenile salmonids. Prog Oceanogr 68:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferrari S, Cribari-Neto F (2004) Beta regression for modelling rates and proportions. J Appl Stat 31:799–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fiechter J, Curchitser EN, Edwards CA, Chai F, Goebel NL, Chavez FP (2014) Air-sea CO2 fluxes in the California current: impacts of model resolution and coastal topography. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 28:371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fiechter J, Huff DD, Martin BT, Jackson DW, Edwards CA, Rose KA, Curchitser EN, Hedstrom KS, Lindley ST, Wells BK (2015) Environmental conditions impacting juvenile Chinook salmon growth off Central California: an ecosystem model analysis. Geophys Res Lett 42:2910–2917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fisher J, Trudel M, Ammann A, Orsi JA, Piccolo J, Bucher C, Casillas E, Harding JA, MacFarlane RB, Brodeur RD, Morris JFT, Welch DW (2007) Comparisons of the coastal distributions and abundances of juvenile Pacific salmon from Central California to the northern gulf of Alaska. Ecol Juv Salmon Northeast Pacific Ocean Reg Comp 57:31–80Google Scholar
  37. Fisher JP, Weitkamp LA, Teel DJ, Hinton SA, Orsi JA, Farley EV, Morris JFT, Thiess ME, Sweeting RM, Trudel M (2014) Early ocean dispersal patterns of Columbia River Chinook and Coho Salmon. Trans Am Fish Soc 143:252–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Friedland KD, Hansen LP, Dunkley DA, MacLean JC (2000) Linkage between ocean climate, post-smolt growth, and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the North Sea area. ICES J Mar Sci 57:419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goldbogen JA, Calambokidis J, Oleson E, Potvin J, Pyenson ND, Schorr G, Shadwick RE (2011) Mechanics, hydrodynamics and energetics of blue whale lunge feeding: efficiency dependence on krill density. J Exp Biol 214:131–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Greene CM, Beechie TJ (2004) Consequences of potential density-dependent mechanisms on recovery of ocean-type Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:590–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Haidvogel DB, Arango H, Budgell WP, Cornuelle BD, Curchitser E, Di Lorenzo E, Fennel K, Geyer WR, Hermann AJ, Lanerolle L, Levin J, McWilliams JC, Miller AJ, Moore AM, Powell TM, Shchepetkin AF, Sherwood CR, Signell RP, Warner JC, Wilkin J (2008) Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean modeling system. J Comput Phys 227:3595–3624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hamner WM, Hamner PP (2000) Behavior of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba): schooling, foraging, and antipredatory behavior. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:192–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harding JA, Ammann AJ, MacFarlane RB (2011) Regional and seasonal patterns of epipelagic fish assemblages from the Central California current. Fish Bull 109:261–281Google Scholar
  44. Hassrick JL, Henderson MJ, Huff DH, Sydeman WJ, Sabal MC, Harding JA, Ammann AJ, Crandall ED, Bjorkstedt EP, Garza JC, Hayes SA (2016) Early ocean distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon in an upwelling ecosystem. Fish OceanogrGoogle Scholar
  45. Hastie TJ, Tibshirani RJ, Friedman JH (2009) The elements of statistical learning: data mining, inference, and prediction. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  46. Heppell SS (1998) Application of life-history theory and population model analysis to turtle conservation application of life-history theory and population model analysis to turtle conservation. Copeia:367–375. doi:10.2307/1447430
  47. Holsman KK, Scheuerell MD, Buhle E, Emmett R (2012) Interacting effects of translocation, artificial propagation, and environmental conditions on the marine survival of Chinook salmon from the Columbia River, Washington, U.S.A. Conserv Biol 26:912–922CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Holtby LB, Andersen BC, Kadowaki RD (1990) Importance of smolt size and early ocean growth to interannual variability in marine survival of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 47:2181–2194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huber ER, Carlson SM (2015) Temporal trends in hatchery releases of fall-run Chinook salmon in California’s Central Valley. San Fr Estuary Watershed Sci 13:1–23Google Scholar
  50. Irvine JR, O’Neill M, Godbout L, Schnute J (2013) Effects of smolt release timing and size on the survival of hatchery-origin coho salmon in the strait of Georgia. Prog Oceanogr 115:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ivanov LM, Collins CA, Marchesiello P, Margolina TM (2009) On model validation for meso/submesoscale currents: metrics and application to ROMS off Central California. Ocean Model 28:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jacox MG, Hazen EL, Bograd SJ (2016) Optimal environmental conditions and anomalous ecosystem responses: constraining bottom-up controls of phytoplankton biomass in the California current system. Sci Rep 6:27612CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Jonsson N, Jonsson B, Hansen LP (1998) The relative role of density-dependent and density-independent survival in the life cycle of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. J Anim Ecol 67:751–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kishi MJ, Kashiwai M, Ware DM, Megrey BA, Eslilnger DL, Werner FE, Noguchi-Aita M, Azumaya T, Fuji M, Hashimoto S, Huang D, Iizumi H, Ishida Y, Kang S, Kantakov GA, Kim H, Komatsu K, Navrotsky VV, Smith SL, Tadokoro K, Tsuda A, Yamamura O, Yamanka Y, Yokouchi K, Yoshie N, Zhang J, Zuenko YI, Zvalinsky VI (2007) NEMURO-a lower trophic level model for the North Pacific marine ecosystem. Ecol Model 202:12–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Klaassen RHG, Hake M, Strandberg R, Koks BJ, Trierweiler C, Exo KM, Bairlein F, Alerstam T (2014) When and where does mortality occur in migratory birds? Direct evidence from long-term satellite tracking of raptors. J Anim Ecol 83:176–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kvitrud MA, Riemer SD, Brown RF, Bellinger MR, Banks MA (2005) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and salmon: genetics presents hard numbers for elucidating predator-prey dynamics. Mar Biol 147:1459–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Larsen DA, Beckman BR, Strom CR, Parkins PJ, Cooper KA, Fast DE, Dickhoff WW (2006) Growth modulation alters the incidence of early male maturation and physiological development of hatchery-reared spring Chinook salmon: a comparison with wild. Trans Am Fish Soc 135:1017–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Logerwell EA, Mantua N, Lawson PW, Francis RC, Agostini VN (2003) Tracking environmental processes in the coastal zone for understanding and predicting Oregon coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) marine survival. Fish Oceanogr 12:554–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Losee JP, Miller JA, Peterson WT, Teel DJ, Jacobson KC (2014) Influence of ocean ecosystem variation on trophic interactions and survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 71:1747–1757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Magnusson A, Hilborn R (2003) Estuarine influence on survival rates of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from hatcheries on the U.S. Pacific coast. Estuaries 26:1094–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martin TG, Chadès I, Arcese P, Marra PP, Possingham HP, Norris DR (2007) Optimal conservation of migratory species. PLoS One 2:3–7Google Scholar
  62. Martins EG, Hinch SG, Cooke SJ, Patterson DA (2012) Climate effects on growth, phenology, and survival of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): a synthesis of the current state of knowledge and future research directions. Rev Fish Biol Fish 22:887–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Martinson EC, Helle JH, Scarnecchia DL, Stokes HH (2008) Density-dependent growth of Alaska sockeye salmon in relation to climate-oceanic regimes, population abundance, and body size, 1925 to 1998. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 370:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McLane AJ, Semeniuk C, McDermid GJ, Marceau DJ (2011) The role of agent-based models in wildlife ecology and management. Ecol Model 222:1544–1556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Melton C, Washburn L, Gotschalk C (2009) Wind relaxations and poleward flow events in a coastal upwelling system on the Central California coast. J Geophys Res 114:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Metcalfe NB, Valdimarsson SK, Morgan IJ (2003) The relative roles of domestication, rearing environment, prior residence and body size in deciding territorial contests between hatchery and wild juvenile salmon. J Appl Ecol 40:535–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Miller JA, Teel DJ, Baptista A, Morgan CA (2013) Disentangling bottom-up and top-down effects on survival during early ocean residence in a population of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 70:617–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Morgan CA, De Robertis A, Zabel RW (2005) Columbia River plume fronts. I. Hydrography, zooplankton distribution, and community composition. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 299:19–31. doi:10.3354/meps299019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moss JH, Beauchamp DA, Cross AD, Myers KW, Farley EV, Murphy JM, Helle JH (2005) Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon. Trans Am Fish Soc 134:1313–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mueter FJ, Peterman RM, Pyper BJ (2002) Opposite effects of ocean temperature on survival rates of 120 stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in northern and southern areas. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59:456–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nandor GF, Longwill JR, Webb DL (2010) Overview of the coded wire tag program in the greater Pacific region of North America. Portland, OregonGoogle Scholar
  72. Newman KB, Brandes PL (2010) Hierarchical modeling of juvenile Chinook salmon survival as a function of Sacramento–San Joaquin delta water exports. North Am J Fish Manag 30:157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nickelson TE (1986) Influences of upwelling, ocean temperature, and smolt abundance on marine survival of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Oregon production area. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Opperman JJ (2012) A conceptual model for floodplains in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, 10(3)Google Scholar
  75. Peterson WT, Miller CB, Hutchinson A (1979) Zonation and maintenance of copepod populations in the Oregon upwelling zone. Deep Sea Res Part A, Oceanogr Res Pap 26:467–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pringle JM, Dever EP (2009) Dynamics of wind-driven upwelling and relaxation between Monterey Bay and point arena: local-, regional-, and gyre-scale controls. J Geophys Res 114:C07003Google Scholar
  77. Quiñones RM, Holyoak M, Johnson ML, Moyle PB (2014) Potential factors affecting survival differ by run-timing and location: linear mixed-effects models of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Klamath River, California. PLoS One 9:e98392CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Reinhardt UG, Yamamoto T, Nakano S (2001) Effects of body size and predators on intracohort competition in wild and domesticated juvenile salmon in a stream. Ecol Res 16:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ruggerone GT, Zimmermann M, Myers KW, Nielsen JL, Rogers DE (2003) Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean. Fish Oceanogr 12:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ryding KE, Skalski JR (1999) Multivariate regression relationships between ocean conditions and early marine survival of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:2374–2384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Saiki MK, Jennings MR, Wiedmeyer RH (1992) Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California, to juvenile Chinook salmon and striped bass. Trans Am Fish Soc 121:78–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Santora JA, Ralston S, Sydeman WJ (2011) Spatial organization of krill and seabirds in the Central California current. ICES J Mar Sci 68:1391–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Santora JA, Field JC, Schroeder ID, Sakuma KM, Wells BK, Sydeman WJ (2012) Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the Central California current: implications for defining ecologically important areas. Prog Oceanogr 106:154–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Santora JA, Sydeman WJ, Messié M, Chai F, Chao Y, Thompson SA, Wells BK, Chavez FP (2013) Triple check: observations verify structural realism of an ocean ecosystem model. Geophys Res Lett 40:1367–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Satterthwaite WH, Carlson SM, Allen-Moran SD, Vincenzi S, Bograd SJ, Wells BK (2014) Match-mismatch dynamics and the relationship between ocean-entry timing and relative ocean recoveries of Central Valley fall run Chinook salmon. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 511:237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Scheuerell MD, Zabel RW, Sandford BP (2009) Relating juvenile migration timing and survival to adulthood in two species of threatened Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). J Appl Ecol 46:983–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schroeder ID, Black BA, Sydeman WJ, Bograd SJ, Hazen EL, Santora JA, Wells BK (2013) The North Pacific high and wintertime pre-conditioning of California current productivity. Geophys Res Lett 40:541–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sharma R, Vélez-Espino LA, Wertheimer AC, Mantua N, Francis RC (2013) Relating spatial and temporal scales of climate and ocean variability to survival of Pacific Northwest Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish Oceanogr 22:14–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shchepetkin AF, McWilliams JC (2005) The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): a split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model. Ocean Model 9:347–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sogard SM (1997) Size-selective mortality in the juvenile stage of teleost fishes: a review. Bull Mar Sci 60:1129–1157Google Scholar
  91. Sommer TR, Nobriga ML, Harrell WC et al (2001) Floodplain rearing of juvenile Chinook salmon: evidence of enhanced growth and survival. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Thompson SA, Sydeman WJ, Santora JA, Black BA, Suryan RM, Calambokidis J, Peterson WT, Bograd SJ (2012) Linking predators to seasonality of upwelling: using food web indicators and path analysis to infer trophic connections. Prog Oceanogr 101:106–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tucker S, Hipfner JM, Trudel M (2016) Size- and condition-dependent predation: a seabird disproportionately targets substandard individual juvenile salmon. Ecology 97:461–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Vander Woude AJ, Largier JL, Kudela RM (2006) Nearshore retention of upwelled waters north and south of point Reyes (northern California)-patterns of surface temperature and chlorophyll observed in CoOP WEST. Deep Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 53:2985–2998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Weber E, Fausch K (2005) Competition between hatchery-reared and wild juvenile Chinook Salmon in enclosures in the Sacramento River, California. Trans Am Fish Soc 134:44–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wells BK, Grimes CB, Sneva JG, McPherson S, Waldvogel JB (2008) Relationships between oceanic conditions and growth of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from California, Washington, and Alaska, USA. Fish Oceanogr 17:101–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wells BK, Santora JA, Field JC et al (2012) Population dynamics of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha relative to prey availability in the Central California coastal region. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 457:125–137. doi:10.3354/meps09727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wells B, Santora J, Schroeder I, Mantuna N, Sydeman WJ, Huff DD, Field JC (2016) Marine ecosystem perspectives on Chinook salmon recruitment: a synthesis of empirical and modeling studies from a California upwelling system. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 552:271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Willette TM, Cooney RT, Patrick V, Mason DM, Scheel D (2001) Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William sound, Alaska. Fish Oceanogr 10:14–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wilson JR, Broitman BR, Caselle JE, Wendt DE (2008) Recruitment of coastal fishes and oceanographic variability in Central California. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 79:483–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wing SR, Botsford LW, Ralston SV, Largier JL (1998) Meroplanktonic distribution and circulation in a coastal retention zone of the northern California upwelling system. Limnol Oceanogr 43:1710–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Woodson LE, Wells BK, Weber PK, MacFarlane RB, Whitman GE, Johnson RC (2013) Size, growth, and origin-dependent mortality of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha during early ocean residence. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 487:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yurk H, Trites AW (2000) Experimental attempts to reduce predation by harbor seals on out-migrating juvenile salmonids. Trans Am Fish Soc 129:1360–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zeug SC, Cavallo BJ (2013) Influence of estuary conditions on the recovery rate of coded-wire-tagged Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an ocean fishery. Ecol Freshw Fish 22:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Megan C. Sabal
    • 1
    • 2
  • David D. Huff
    • 3
  • Mark J. Henderson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  • Jerome Fiechter
    • 4
  • Jeffrey A. Harding
    • 2
  • Sean A. Hayes
    • 5
  1. 1.Santa Cruz, Cooperative Institute for Marine Ecosystems and Climate (CIMEC)University of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA
  2. 2.Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries ServiceNational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationSanta CruzUSA
  3. 3.Point Adams Research Station, Northwest Fisheries Science CenterNational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationHammondUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Marine SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA
  5. 5.Northeast Fisheries Science CenterNational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationWoods HoleUSA
  6. 6.United States Geological Survey, California Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries BiologyHumboldt State UniversityArcataUSA

Personalised recommendations