Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 98, Issue 3, pp 971–978 | Cite as

Validated age estimates for large white sharks of the northeastern Pacific Ocean: altered perceptions of vertebral growth shed light on complicated bomb Δ14C results

  • Allen H. Andrews
  • Lisa A. Kerr
Article

Abstract

Age validation studies of large shark species using bomb radiocarbon (14C) dating have revealed that the growth of vertebrae can cease in adults. In a previous study of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) of the northeastern Pacific Ocean the latest growth material (leading edge of the corpus calcareum) was assigned a known date-of-formation assumed to coincide with the individual’s date of capture. This perspective prevented the assignment of older years of formation (a shift in age) to this material, leading to complicated results and no validated age estimates. A reanalysis of the bomb 14C data, in light of the recent findings for other species, has led to a validated lifespan estimate exceeding 30 years for white sharks of the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

Keywords

Bomb radiocarbon dating Longevity Age and growth Vertebrae Validation Carcharodon carcharias Lamniformes Elasmobranch 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks to L. Hamady and L. Natanson for pressing the potential issue of underestimated age for the sharks we reanalyzed in this paper. We thank Gregor Cailliet (Moss Landing Marine Labs), the Los Angeles County Museum, California Academy of Sciences, Sea World San Diego for specimen support. This paper was supported in part by the Pacific Shark Research Center and the National Sea Grant College Program of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under NOAA Grant #NA06RG0142, project number R/F-190, through the California Sea Grant College Program, and in part by the California State Resources Agency. Thank you to Edward DeMartini for his laser-like editorial and insight and to two anonymous reviewers for helpful and supportive comments. The views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of any of those organizations. This work was performed, in part, under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

References

  1. Allen LG, Andrews AH (2012) Bomb radiocarbon dating and estimated longevity of Giant Sea Bass (Stereolepis gigas). Bull S Cal Acad Sci 111:1–14Google Scholar
  2. Andrews AH, Natanson LJ, Kerr LA, Burgess GH, Cailliet GM (2011) Bomb radiocarbon and tag-recapture dating of sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus). Fish Bull 109:454–465Google Scholar
  3. Andrews AH, Leaf RT, Rogers-Bennett L, Neuman M, Hawk H, Cailliet GM (2013) Bomb radiocarbon dating of the endangered white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni): investigations of age, growth and lifespan. Mar Freshwater Res 64:1029–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Broecker WS, Peng T–H (1982) ‘Tracers in the sea’. Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Cailliet GM, Natanson LJ, Welden BA, Ebert DA (1985) Preliminary studies on the age and growth of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using vertebral bands. In ‘Biology of the white shark.’ (ed. Sibley G) Mem S Calif Acad Sci 9:49–59Google Scholar
  6. Campana SE (2001) Accuracy, precision and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods. J Fish Biol 59:197–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campana SE, Natanson LJ, Myklevoll S (2002) Bomb dating and age determination of large pelagic sharks. Canadian J Fish Aquat Sci 59:450–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Casey JG, Pratt HL Jr, Stillwell C (1985) Age and growth of the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) from the western North Atlantic. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42:963–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Druffel ERM (2002) Radiocarbon in corals: records of the carbon cycle, surface circulation and climate. Oceanography 15:122–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Druffel ERM, Williams PM, Robertson K, Griffin S, Jull AJT, Donahue D, Toolin L, Linick TW (1989) Radiocarbon in dissolved organic and inorganic carbon from the Central North Pacific. Radiocarbon 31:523–532Google Scholar
  11. Druffel ERM, Griffin S, Guilderson TP (2001) Changes of subtropical north Pacific radiocarbon and correlation with climate variability. Radiocarbon 43:15–25Google Scholar
  12. Francis MP, Campana S, Jones CM (2007) Age underestimation in New Zealand porbeagle sharks (Lamna nasus): is there an upper limit to ages that can be determined from shark vertebrae? Mar Freshwater Res 58:10–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grottoli AG, Eakin CM (2007) A review of modern coral δ18O and Δ14C proxy records. Earth-Sci Rev 81:67–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haltuch MA, Hamell OS, Piner KR, McDonald P, Kastelle CR, Field JC (2013) A California current bomb radiocarbon reference chronology and petrale sole age validation. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 70:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hamady LL, Natanson LJ, Skomal GB, Thorrold SR (2014) Vertebral bomb radiocarbon suggests extreme longevity in white sharks. PLoS One 9:e84006PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jorgensen SJ, Reeb CA, Chapple TK, Anderson S, Perle C, Van Sommeran SR, Fritz-Cope C, Brown AC, Klimley AP, Block BA (2010) Philopatry and migration of Pacific white sharks. Proc Biol Sci 277:679–688PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kalish JM (2001) Use of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer to validate fish age. Final report FRDC project 93/109. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  18. Kerr LA, Andrews AH, Cailliet GM, Brown TA, Coale KH (2006) Investigations of Δ14C, δ15N, and δ13C in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern Pacific Ocean. Environ Biol Fish 77:337–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kneebone J, Natanson LJ, Andrews AH, Howell WH (2008) Using bomb radiocarbon analyses to validate age and growth estimates for the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, in the western North Atlantic. Mar Biol 154:423–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kohler NE, Casey JG, Turner PA (1996) Length-length and length-weight relationships for 13 shark species from the Western North Atlantic. NOAA Tech. Mem. NMFS-NE-110Google Scholar
  21. Natanson, LJ, Gervelis, BJ, Winton, MV, Hamady, LL, Gulak, SJB, Carlson JK (2013) Validated age and growth estimates for Carcharhinus obscurus in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, with pre- and post management growth comparisons. Env Biol Fish 97:881–896Google Scholar
  22. Passerotti MS, Carlson JK, Piercy AN, Campana SE (2010) Age validation of great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran), determined by bomb radiocarbon analysis. Fish Bull 108:346–351Google Scholar
  23. Passerotti MS, Andrews AH, Carlson JK, Wintner SP, Goldman KJ, Natanson LJ (2014) Maximum age and missing time in the vertebrae of sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus): validated lifespan from bomb radiocarbon dating in the western North Atlantic and southwestern Indian Oceans. Mar Freshwater Res 65:674–687Google Scholar
  24. Rau GH, Mearns AJ, Young DR, Olson RJ, Schafer HA, Kaplan IR (1983) Animal 13C/12C correlates with trophic level in pelagic food webs. Ecology 64:1314–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Roark EB, Guilderson TP, Dunbar RB, Ingram BL (2006) Radiocarbon based ages and growth rates: Hawaiian deep sea corals. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 327:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Robinson SW (1981) Natural and man-made radiocarbon as a tracer for coastal upwelling process. In: Richards FA (ed) ‘Coastal upwelling. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 298–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stuiver M, Polach HA (1977) Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19:355–363Google Scholar
  28. Tanaka S, Kitamura T, Mochizuki T, Kofuji K (2011) Age, growth and genetic status of the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from Kashima-nada, Japan. Mar Freshwater Res 62:548–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NOAA Fisheries – PIFSC, Inouye Regional CenterHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Gulf of Maine Research InstitutePortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations