Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 94, Issue 4, pp 681–687 | Cite as

Spawning frequency in the eastern Australian river garfish, Hyporhamphus regularis ardelio (Hemiramphidae)

  • Alexandra M. Nuttall
  • John Stewart
  • Julian M. Hughes


Patterns in the timing of spawning of the eastern Australian river garfish Hyporhamphus regularis ardelio were investigated by sampling fish throughout 24 h during their peak spawning period. Patterns in gonadosomatic indices, the presence of hydrated oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles in histological ovary sections, together with previously demonstrated polymodal distributions of oocytes undergoing final maturation, indicated that river garfish were capable of spawning at any time during the 24 h period. Spawning had either recently occurred or was imminent in all females sampled suggesting that river garfish could spawn multiple times in a given season. Although energy resources are used in the production of low numbers (<2500) of large (~2.5 mm diameter) eggs per batch, total fecundity during the reproductive season may be elevated through multiple spawning events. Implications of these findings on current fishery management regulations are discussed.


Spawning River garfish Hyporhamphus regularis ardelio Gonadosomatic index Post-ovulatory follicle Hydrated oocyte 



We thank Steve Montgomery and four anonymous referees for critically reviewing this manuscript and Paul McGarry for assistance in catching river garfish.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra M. Nuttall
    • 1
  • John Stewart
    • 1
  • Julian M. Hughes
    • 1
  1. 1.Cronulla Fisheries Research Centre of ExcellenceCronullaAustralia

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