Comparison of UV-B tolerance between wild and hatchery-reared juveniles of red sea bream (Pagrus major) and black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli)
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The amount of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation reaching the sea surface has increased due to ozone depletion. Several laboratory studies have highlighted the negative impacts of UV radiation on fish using hatchery-reared specimens. However, potential differences in UV tolerance between wild and hatchery-reared fish have been given little consideration. Wild and reared juveniles of red sea bream and black sea bream were exposed to one of four different UV-B radiation levels (1.8; 1.1; 0.4; 0 W/m2) for 4 h. Survival rate was measured every 2 h for a period of 24 h (red sea bream) or 48 h (black sea bream) following exposure. Wild and reared juvenile red sea bream were characterized by similar survival rate, with survival declining to almost 0 % 24 h after exposure at the 1.1 and 1.8 W/m2 levels. In black sea bream, wild individuals showed significantly higher survival than reared fish in levels 1.1 and 1.8 W/m2. Melanophore density was also measured since melanin absorbs UV radiation. Wild black sea bream showed higher melanophore density compared to reared individuals, while no such difference was observed in red sea bream. We conclude that wild black sea bream juveniles acquire higher UV tolerance partly by increasing melanophore density through exposure to UV radiation. Our results indicate that the predicted impacts of UV radiation on fish populations solely based on experimentation with hatchery-reared specimens may be overestimated for some species.
KeywordsUltraviolet radiation Sparid fish Interspecific comparison Melanophores
We thank the Ishikawa Prefectural Fisheries Center for providing red sea bream and black sea bream fertilized eggs, staff at Notojima Station, National Center for Stock Enhancement, Fisheries Research Agency, for providing rotifers, and the staff and students in MFRS for helping sampling of wild red sea bream and black sea bream. Comments from H. I. Browman and two anonymous reviewers substantially improved the quality of this manuscript. This study was supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS fellows (No. 203906).
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