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Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 93, Issue 4, pp 519–530 | Cite as

High intra-population genetic variability and inter-population differentiation in a plateau specialized fish, Triplophysa orientalis

  • Feixia Hou
  • Xiuyue Zhang
  • Xuefei Zhang
  • Bisong Yue
  • Zhaobin SongEmail author
Article

Abstract

Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein) is one of the Nemacheilinae (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae) fish species distributed in the Tibetan Plateau area. In order to understand the impact of plateau uplift on population history and the isolation effect of plateau lakes on T. orientalis, we examined its genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships. A total of 98 individuals from five wild populations, three from plateau lakes and two from branch rivers in upper reaches of the Yangtze River, in the eastern peripheral of the Tibetan Plateau were sampled. An 848 base pair fragment from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced for analyses. Overall, very high intra-population genetic variability was found in all populations except for one lake population (Rannicuo); nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.0025 to 0.0159 and haplotype diversity ranged from 0.641 to 0.879. Furthermore, the genetic distance between river populations (0.0326) was much higher than that among lake populations (Rannicuo and Barencuo 0.0035, Bannicuo and Yibicuo 0.0038, Rannicuo and Yibicuo 0.0049). Additionally, the analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that most of the observed genetic variability occurred among populations, accompanied with significant Fst values except for that between the Yibicuo and Barencuo populations. This evidence suggested a strong population structure of the species and a lack of inter-population connection. Lastly, the rate of migration indicated there were large historic gene flows among lake populations. Demographic analysis also indicated there were bottlenecks or expansions in three lake populations, suggesting a potential isolation effect of plateau lakes on population differentiation. Molecular dating of intra-specific divergence showed the plateau uplift has shaped the genetic structure of T. orientalis.

Keywords

Genetic variability Population structure and differentiation Isolation effect Mitochondrial DNA control region Triplophysa orientalis Tibetan Plateau 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30670290), Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry (No. 2008890-19-13), and Sichuan Youth Science and Technology Foundation (No. 08ZQ026-019). We would like to thank Chunlin He for his help in sample collection. We are grateful for Emily H. King, Jinzhong Fu and Cameron Hudson for their help in English corrections, three anonymous reviewers and David. L. G. Noakes for their comments on the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feixia Hou
    • 1
  • Xiuyue Zhang
    • 1
  • Xuefei Zhang
    • 1
  • Bisong Yue
    • 1
  • Zhaobin Song
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, College of Life SciencesSichuan UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China

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