Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 92, Issue 3, pp 285–293 | Cite as

Ontogenetic variation in fin ray segmentation between latitudinal populations of the medaka, Oryzias latipes

Article

Abstract

Fin rays of ray-finned fishes are composed of multiple bony segments, and each fin ray elongates by adding a new segment to the tip. Therefore, fin ray length is determined by the number of segments and the length of each segment. A comparison of the anal fin rays of a northern and southern wild population of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, revealed that southern fish had more segments per fin ray, resulting in longer anal fins than the northern fish. When fish were reared in a laboratory common environment, segmentation of the fin rays started earlier with respect to body size in the southern fish. In the southern males, moreover, the rate of segment addition accelerated after a certain body size, indicating sexual maturity. These patterns of segment addition during ontogeny were consistent with the patterns of fin ray elongation. Although distal segments tended to be longer, except for the most proximal segment, in both populations, the southern fish had shorter segments than the northern fish at any position on fin rays. These results indicate that the interpopulation variation in fin length is largely due to genetically-based differences in the control of segment addition, and that the length of each segment does not contribute to it. We suspect that fin ray segmentation is regulated by thyroid and sex hormones that differ between populations. We also found that some segments fuse with each other at the base of each fin ray, the functions and mechanisms of which remain unclear.

Keywords

Fin ray Fusion Latitude Oryzias latipes Segment Variation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank S. Fujimoto, M. Abe, S. Kiso, T. Nakada, K. Sasaki, Y. Suzuki, H. Higa and K. Ikehara for their help in field collections and/or rearing the experimental fish, and H. Hanada and T. Shimizu for their assistance in assembling experimental equipment. This study was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (20570019) to KY.

References

  1. Arendt JD (1997) Adaptive intrinsic growth rates: an integration across taxa. Q Rev Biol 72:149–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown DD (1997) The role of thyroid hormone in zebrafish and axolotl development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:13011–13016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chambers RC, Leggett WC, Brown JA (1988) Variation in and among early life history traits of laboratory-reared winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 47:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. De Jesus EG, Toledo JD, Simpas MS (1998) Thyroid hormones promote early metamorphosis in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) larvae. Gen Comp Endocrinol 112:10–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Endler JA (1986) Natural selection in the wild. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  6. Goss RJ, Stagg MW (1957) The regeneration of fins and fin rays in Fundulus heteroclitus. J Exp Zool 136:487–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haas HJ (1962) Studies on mechanisms of joint and bone formation in the skeletal rays of fish fins. Dev Biol 5:1–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hirata Y, Kurokusa H, Kasahara S (1989) Effects of thyroxine and thiourea on the development of larval red sea bream Pagrus major. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 55:1189–1195Google Scholar
  9. Inui Y, Yamano K, Miwa S (1995) The role of thyroid hormone in tissue development in metamorphosing flounder. Aquac 135:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iovine MK, Johnson SL (2000) Genetic analysis of isometric growth control mechanisms in the zebrafish caudal fin. Genetics 155:1321–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Iwamatsu T (2006) The integrated book for the biology of the medaka. University Education Press, OkayamaGoogle Scholar
  12. Johnson SL, Bennett P (1999) Growth control in the ontogenetic and regenerating zebrafish fin. Methods Cell Biol 59:301–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kavanagh KD, Alford RA (2003) Sensory and skeletal development and growth in relation to the duration of the embryonic and larval stages in damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Biol J Linn Soc 80:187–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kawajiri M, Kokita T, Yamahira K (2009) Heterochronic differences in fin development between latitudinal populations of the medaka Oryzias latipes (Actinopterygii: Adrianichthyidae). Biol J Linn Soc 97:571–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koseki Y, Takata K, Maekawa K (2000) The role of the anal fin in fertilization success in male medaka, Oryzias latipes. Fish Sci 66:633–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nelson JS (2006) Fishes of the world, 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Ngamniyom A, Magtoon W, Nagahama Y, Sasayama Y (2009) Expression levels of hormone receptors and bone morphogenic protein in fins of medaka. Zool Sci 26:74–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ogino Y, Kotoh H, Yamada G (2004) Androgen dependent development of a modified anal fin, gonopodium, as a model to understand the mechanism of secondary sexual character expression in vertebrates. EEBS Lett 575:119–126Google Scholar
  19. Sato T, Suzuki A, Shibata N, Sakaizumi M, Hamaguchi S (2008) The novel mutant scl of the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, shows no secondary sex characters. Zool Sci 25:299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tresnake I (1981) The long-finned zebra Danio. Trop Fish Hobby 29:43–56Google Scholar
  21. Victor BC (1986) Delayed metamorphosis with reduced larval growth in a coral reef fish (Thalassoma bifasciatum). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:1208–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yabe M (2006) Diversity and systematics of fishes. In: Matsui M (ed) Diversity and evolution of vertebrates. Shokabo Publishing, Tokyo, pp 46–93Google Scholar
  23. Yamahira K, Takeshi K (2008) Variation in juvenile growth rates among and within latitudinal populations of the medaka. Popul Ecol 50:3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yamahira K, Kawajiri M, Takeshi K, Irie T (2007) Inter- and intrapopulation variation in thermal reaction norms for growth rate: evolution of latitudinal compensation in ectotherms with a genetic constraint. Evolution 61:1577–1589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Tropical Biosphere Research CenterUniversity of the RyukyusOkinawaJapan

Personalised recommendations