Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 89, Issue 3–4, pp 591–605 | Cite as

A comparison of otolith microchemistry and otolith shape analysis for the study of spatial variation in a deep-sea teleost, Coryphaenoides rupestris

  • Craig Longmore
  • Kate Fogarty
  • Francis Neat
  • Deirdre Brophy
  • Clive Trueman
  • Andrew Milton
  • Stefano MarianiEmail author


The study of the morphological and chemical characteristics of otoliths have recently been proposed as complementary tools for fish stock identification. However, their effectiveness remains to be fully assessed, especially in species whose life history is still poorly understood. The relative efficiency of otolith microchemistry and otolith shape analysis in discriminating samples of the deep-sea macrourid Coryphaenoides rupestris collected in different areas in the North Atlantic was examined. Otolith microchemistry based on LA/ICP-MS found significant differences in the concentrations of lithium, manganese and barium among sample sites. This allowed for very high classification accuracy (92%), when using discriminant function analysis. Otolith shape analysis based both on linear shape measurements and elliptical fourier analysis revealed a contrasting weak discrimination, with only 43% classification success. Otolith microchemistry appears to be a more effective tool in identifying individual fish from different locations. The implications for the study of population structure are discussed taking into account the limitations of the methodologies employed.


Roundnose Grenadier ICP-MS Stock structure Trace elements Elliptic Fourier Analysis North Atlantic Fisheries management 



This study forms part of Craig Longmores’ PhD studies within the DEECON project ( and received financial support by the European Science Foundation and the Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, under the EuroDEEP EUROCORE scheme. Additional funds were provided by MARECO ( We are indebted to all DEECON project members for their support and stimulating discussions and to three anonymous reviewers for their valuable constructive criticism. We also wish to thank the Norwegian, Irish, Portuguese and Scottish scientific fishing fleets for their involvement in sample collection.


  1. Allain V (2000) Age estimation and growth of some deep-sea fish from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Cybium 24:7–16Google Scholar
  2. Anon MS (2000) Report of the study group on the biology and assessment of deep-sea fisheries resources ICES C.M. Doc No. ACFM:8: 205pGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashford J, Jones C (2007) Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in otoliths record spatial isolation of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides). Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashford JR, Jones CM, Hofmann E, Everson I, Moreno C, Duhamel G, Williams R (2005) Can otolith elemental signatures record the capture site of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), a fully marine fish in the Southern Ocean? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 62:2832–2840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashford JR, Arkhipkin AI, Jones CM (2006) Can the chemistry of otolith nuclei determine population structure of Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides. J Fish Biol 69:708–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashford JR, Arkhipkin AI, Jones CM (2007) Otolith chemistry reflects frontal systems in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 351:249–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atkinson DB (1989) Weight-length relationships of Roundnose Grenadier (Coryphaenoides-Rupestris Gunn) in different areas of the North-Atlantic. Fish Res 7:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson DB (1995) The biology and fishery of Roundnose Grenadier (C. rupestris Gunnerus, 1765) in the north-west Atlantic. In: Hopper AG (ed) Deep-water Fisheries of the North Atlantic Oceanic Slope. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 51–112Google Scholar
  9. Bailey MC, Heath MR (2001) Spatial variability in the growth rate of blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) larvae at the shelf edge west of the UK. Fish Res 50:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Begg GA, Overholtz WJ, Munroe NJ (2001) The use of internal otolith morphometrics for identification of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) stocks on Georges Bank. Fish Bull 99:1–14Google Scholar
  11. Berg E, Sarvas TH, Harbitz A, Fevolden SE, Salberg AB (2005) Accuracy and precision in stock separation of north-east Arctic and Norwegian coastal cod by otoliths comparing readings, image analyses and a genetic method. pp 753–762Google Scholar
  12. Bergstad OA (1990) Distribution, population structure, growth and reproduction of the Roundnose Grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris (Pisces: Macrouridae) in the deep waters of the Skagerrak. Mar Biol 107:25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bergstad OA, Gordon JDM (1994) Deep-Water Ichthyoplankton of the Skagerrak with special reference to Coryphaenoides-Rupestris Gunnerus, 1765 (Pisces, Pacrouridae) and Argentina-Silus (Ascanius, 1775) (Pisces, Argentinidae). Sarsia 79:33–43Google Scholar
  14. Bridger JP (1978) New deep water trawling grounds to the west of Britain. Lowestoft, England, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Laboratory leaflet 41: 40Google Scholar
  15. Bronwyn MG, Michael JK (2000) Elemental fingerprints of otoliths of fish may distinguish estuarine ‘nursery’ habitat. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 201:273–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brophy D, Danilowicz BS, Jeffries TE (2003) The detection of elements in larval otoliths from Atlantic herring using laser ablation ICP-MS. J Fish Biol 63:990–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bruland KW (1983) Trace elements in seawater. Chem oceanogr 8:157–220Google Scholar
  18. Burke N, Brophy D, King PA (2008) Shape analysis of otolith annuli in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus); a new method for tracking fish populations. Fish Res 91:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campana SE (1999) Chemistry and composition of fish otoliths: pathways, mechanisms and applications. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 188:263–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campana SE (2005) Otolith science entering the 21st century. Mar Freshwater Res 56:485–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Campana SE, Neilson JD (1985) Microstructure of fish otoliths. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42:1014–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Campana SE, Casselman JM (1993) Stock discrimination using otolith shape-analysis. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50:1062–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Campana SE, Thorrold SR (2001) Otoliths, increments, and elements: keys to a comprehensive understanding of fish populations? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Campana SE, Gagne JA, McLaren JW (1995) Elemental fingerprinting of fish otoliths using Id-Icpms. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 122:115–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Campana SE, Chouinard GA, Hanson JM, Frechet A, Brattey J (2000) Otolith elemental fingerprints as biological tracers of fish stocks. Fish Res 46:343–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cardinale M, Doering-Arjes P, Kastowsky M, Mosegaard H (2004) Effects of sex, stock, and environment on the shape of known- age Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Castonguay M, Simard P, Gagnon P (1991) Usefulness of fourier-analysis of otolith shape for atlantic mackerel (Scomber-Scombrus) stock discrimination. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:296–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chisnall BL, Kalish JM (1993) Age validation and movement of freshwater eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii and A. australis) in a New Zealand pastoral stream. NZ J Mar Freshwat Res 27:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clark MR, Anderson OF, Chris Francis RIC, Tracey DM (2000) The effects of commercial exploitation on orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) from the continental slope of the Chatham Rise, New Zealand, from 1979 to 1997. Fish Res 45:217–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen DM, Inada T, Iwamoto T, Scialabba N (1990) FAO species catalogue, vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (order gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiforms fishes known to date. FAO fisheries synopsis Vol. 125: 442ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Costa C, Aguzzi J, Menesatti P, Antonucci F, Rimatori V, Mattoccia M (2008) Shape analyses of different populations of clams in relation to geographical structure. J Zool 276:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Danielssen DS, Svendsen E, Ostrowski M (1996) Long-term hydrographic variation in the Skagerrak based on the section Torungen-Hirtshals. ICES J Mar Sci 53:917–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DeVries DA, Grimes CB, Prager MH (2002) Using otolith shape analysis to distinguish eastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean stocks of king mackerel. Fish Res 57:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dove SG, Gillanders BM, Kingsford MJ (1996) An investigation of chronological differences in the deposition of trace metals in the otoliths of two temperate reef fishes. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 205:15–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Edmonds JS, Moran MJ, Caputi N, Morita M (1989) Trace element analysis of fish sagittae as an aid to stock identification: pink snapper (Chryosphrys auratus ) in Western Australian waters. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:50–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ehrich S (1983) On the occurrence of some fish species at the slopes of the Rockall Trough. Arch FischereiWiss 33:105–150Google Scholar
  37. Elsdon TS, Gillanders BM (2003) Reconstructing migratory patterns of fish based on environmental influences on otolith chemistry. Rev Fish Biol Fish 13:217–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elsdon TS, Gillanders BM (2004) Fish otolith chemistry influenced by exposure to multiple environmental variables. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 313:269–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elsdon TS, Wells BK, Campana SE, Gillanders BM, Jones CM, Limburg KE, Secor DH, Thorrold SR, Walther BD (2008) Otolith chemistry to describe movements and life-history parameters of fishes: Hypotheses, assumptions, limitations and inferences. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 46:297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Engelman L (2004) Discriminant analysis. In SYSTAT, SYSTAT Software Inc., Richmond, USA 11:pp 301–358Google Scholar
  41. Fox CJ, Folkvord A, Geffen AJ (2003) Otolith micro-increment formation in herring Clupea harengus larvae in relation to growth rate. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 264:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Friedland KD, Reddin DG (1994) Use of otolith morphology in stock discriminations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo-Salar). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gauldie RW, Crampton JS (2002) An eco-morphological explanation of individual variability in the shape of the fish otolith: comparison of the otolith of Hoplostethus atlanticus with other species by depth. J Fish Biol 60:1204–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gagliano M, McCormick MI (2004) Feeding history influences otolith shape in tropical fish. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 278:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Geffen AJ, Jarvis K, Thorpe JP, Leah RT, Nash RDM (2003) Spatial differences in the trace element concentrations of Irish Sea plaice Pleuronectes platessa and whiting Merlangius merlangus otoliths. J Sea Res 50:247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gillanders BM, Kingsford MJ (2000) Elemental fingerprints of otoliths of fish may distinguish estuarine ‘nursery’ habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 201:273–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Glauert AM, Glauert RH (1958) Araldite as an embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 4:191–194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gordon JDM, Swan SC, Geffen AJ, Morales-Nin B (2001) Otolith Microchemistry as a Means of Identifying Stocks of Deep-water Demersal Fishes (OTOMIC)Google Scholar
  49. Graham MH (2003) Confronting multicollinearity in ecological multiple regression. Ecology 84:2809–2815Google Scholar
  50. Haedrich RL (1974) Pelagic capture of epibenthic rattail Coryphaenoides-Rupestris. Deep-Sea Res 21:977–979Google Scholar
  51. Haedrich RL, Merrett NR (1988) Summary atlas of deep-living demersal fishes in the North Atlantic Basin. J Nat Hist 22:1325–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hanson PJ, Zdanowicz VS (1999) Elemental composition of otoliths from Atlantic croaker along an estuarine pollution gradient. J Fish Biol 54:656–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Härkönen TJ (1986) Guide to the otoliths of the bony fishes of the Northeastern Atlantic. Danbiu ApS, Hellerup, p 265Google Scholar
  54. Hussy K (2008) Otolith shape in juvenile cod (Gadus morhua): ontogenetic and environmental effects. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 364:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jochum KP, Stoll B (2008) Reference materials for elemental and isotopic analyses by LA-(MC)-ICP-MS: Successes and outstanding needs. In: Laser ablation ICP-MS in the Earth sciences: Current practices and outstanding issues (P. Sylvester, Ed.), Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series 40: 147-168Google Scholar
  56. Jonsdottir IG, Campana SE, Marteinsdottir G (2006) Otolith shape and temporal stability of spawning groups of Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES J Mar Sci 63:1501–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kelly CJ, Connolly PL, Bracken JJ (1996) Maturity, oocyte dynamics and fecundity of the Roundnose Grenadier from the Rockall Trough. J Fish Biol 49(Supplement A):5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kelly CJ, Connolly PL, Bracken JJ (1997) Age estimation, growth, maturity and distribution of the Roundnose Grenadier from the Rockall trough. J Fish Biol 50:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kingsford MJ, Hughes JM, Patterson HM (2009) Otolith chemistry of the non-dispersing reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus: cross-shelf patterns from the central Great Barrier Reef. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 377:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lestrel PE (1997) Fourier descriptors and their applications in biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lombarte C, Cruz A (2007) Otolith size trends in marine fish communities from different depth strata. J Fish Biol 71:53–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lombarte A, Lleonart J (1993) Otolith size changes related with body growth, habitat depth and temperature. Environ Biol Fishes 37:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lorance P, Dupouy H, Allain V (2001) Assessment of the Roundnose Grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris) stock in the Rockall Trough and neighbouring areas (ICES Sub-areas V–VII). Fish Res 51:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mauchline J, Bergstad OA, Gordon JDM, Brattegard T (1994) The food of Juvenile Coryphaenoides Rupestris Gunnerus, 1765 (Pisces, Macrouridae) in the Skagerrak. Sarsia 79:163–164Google Scholar
  65. Merigot B, Letourneur Y, Lecomte-Finiger R (2007) Characterization of local populations of the common sole Solea solea (Pisces, Soleidae) in the NW Mediterranean through otolith morphometrics and shape analysis. Mar Biol 151:997–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Milton DA, Chenery SR (1998) The effect of otolith storage methods on the concentrations of elements detected by laser-ablation ICPMS. J Fish Biol 53:785–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Munk P, Heath M, Skaarup B (1991) Regional and seasonal differences in growth of Larval North-Sea Herring (Clupea-Harengus L) estimated by Otolith microstructure analysis. Cont Shelf Res 11:641–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ogden R (2008) Fisheries forensics: the use of DNA tools for improving compliance, traceability and enforcement in the fishing industry. Fish Fish 9(4):462–472Google Scholar
  69. Patterson WP, Smith GR, Lohmann KC 1 (1993) Continental paleothermometry and seasonality using the isotopic composition of aragonitic otoliths of freshwater fishes. In: Swart P, Lohmann KC, McKenzie J, Savin S (eds.). Continental climate change from isotopic records American Geophysical Union Monograph. 78:191–202Google Scholar
  70. Patterson HM, Thorrold SR, Shenker JM (1999) Analysis of otolith chemistry in Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) from the Bahamas and Belize using solution based ICP MS. Coral Reefs 18:171–178Google Scholar
  71. Pearce NJG, Perkins WT, Westgate JA, Gorton MP, Jackson SE, Neal CR, Chenery SP (1997) A compilation of new and published major and trace element data for NIST SRM 610 and NIST SRM 612 glass reference materials. Geostand Newsl 21:115–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Quinn GP, Keough MJ (2002) Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University Press, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  73. Reist JD (1985) An empirical-evaluation of several univariate methods that adjust for size variation in morphometric data. Can J Zool 63:1429–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Roberts CM (2002) Deep impact: the rising toll of fishing in the deep sea. Trends Ecol Evol 17:242–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Robertson S, Talman S (2002) Shape analysis and ageing of orange roughy otoliths from the south Tasman Rise. Marine and freshwater Resources Institute, Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, Victoria, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  76. Rooker JR, Secor DH, Zdanowicz VS, Itoh T (2001) Discrimination of northern bluefin tuna from nursery areas in the Pacific Ocean using otolith chemistry. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 218:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rooker JR, Secor DH, Zdanowicz VS, De Metrio G, Relini LO (2003) Identification of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) stocks from putative nurseries using otolith chemistry. Fish Oceanogr 12:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rooker JR, Secor DH, DeMetrio G, Kaufman AJ, Rios AB, Ticina V (2008) Evidence of trans-Atlantic movement and natal homing of bluefin tuna from stable isotopes in otoliths. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 368:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Secor DH (1992) Application of otolith microchemistry analysis to investigate anadromy in chesapeake bay striped bass Morone-Saxatilis. Fish Bull 90:798–806Google Scholar
  80. Stransky C (2003) Shape analysis and microchemistry of redfish otoliths: investigation of geographical differences in the North Atlantic. NAFO Scientific Council Research Document, 03/17. 10ppGoogle Scholar
  81. Stransky C (2004) Stock separation and growth of redfish in the north atlantic by means of shape and elemental anlysis of otoliths. Ph.D Thesis. Biology, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  82. Stransky C (2005) Geographic variation of golden redfish (Sebastes marinus) and deep-sea redfish (S. mentella) in the North Atlantic based on otolith shape analysis. ICES J Mar Sci 62:1691–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stransky C, Gudmundsdottir S, Sigurdsson T, Lemvig S, Nedreaas K, Saborido-Rey F (2005) Age determination and growth of Atlantic redfish (Sebastes marinus and S. mentella): bias and precision of age readers and otolith preparation methods. ICES J Mar Sci 62:655–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stransky C, Baumann H, Fevolden SE, Harbitz A, Hoie H, Nedreaas KH, Salberg AB, Skarstein TH (2008a) Separation of Norwegian coastal cod and Northeast Arctic cod by outer otolith shape analysis. Fish Res 90:26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stransky C, Murta AG, Schlickeisen J, Zimmermann C (2008b) Otolith shape analysis as a tool for stock separation of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. Fish Res 89:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Swan SC, Gordon JDM, Morales-Nin B, Shimmield T, Sawyer T, Geffen AJ (2003a) Otolith microchemistry of Nezumia aequalis (Pisces: Macrouridae) from widely different habitats in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 83:883–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Swan SC, Gordon JDM, Shimmield T (2003b) Preliminary investigations on the uses of otolith microchemistry for stock discrimination of the deep-water black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo) in the North East Atlantic. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 31:221–231Google Scholar
  88. Swan SC, Geffen AJ, Gordon JDM, Morales-Nin B, Shimmield T (2006) Effects of handling and storage methods on the concentrations of elements in deep-water fish otoliths. J Fish Biol 68:891–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thresher RE, Proctor CH, Gunn JS, Harrowfield IR (1994) An evaluation of electron-probe microanalysis of otoliths for stock delineation and identification of nursery areas in a Southern Temperate Groundfish, Nemadactylus-Macropterus (Cheilodactylidae). Fish Bull 92:817–840Google Scholar
  90. Tracey SR, Lyle JM, Duhamel G (2006) Application of elliptical Fourier analysis of otolith form as a tool for stock identification. Fish Res 77:138–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Troyanovsky FM, Lisovsky SF (1995) Russian (USSR) fisheries research in deep-waters (below 500 m) in the North Atlantic. In: Hopper AG (ed) Deep-water Fisheries of the North Atlantic Oceanic Slope. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 357–365Google Scholar
  92. Turan C (2000) Otolith shape and meristic analysis of herring (Clupea harengus) in the North-East Atlantic. Arch Fish Mar Res 48:213–225Google Scholar
  93. Turan C (2004) Stock identification of Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) using morphometric and meristic characters. ICES J Mar Sci 61:774–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Turekian KK, Tausch EH (1964) Barium in Deep-sea Sediments of the Atlantic Ocean. Nature 201:696–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tuset VM, Lozano IJ, Gonzalez JA, Pertusa JF, Garcia-Diaz MM (2003) Shape indices to identify regional differences in otolith morphology of comber, Serranus cabrilla (L., 1758). J Appl Ichthyol 19:88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tuset VM, Rosin PL, Lombarte A (2006) Sagittal otolith shape used in the identification of fishes of the genus Serranus. Fish Res 81:316–325Google Scholar
  97. Wilson RR Jr (1985) Depth-related changes in sagitta morphology in six Macrourid Fishes of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Copeia 1985:1011–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Craig Longmore
    • 1
  • Kate Fogarty
    • 1
  • Francis Neat
    • 2
  • Deirdre Brophy
    • 3
  • Clive Trueman
    • 4
  • Andrew Milton
    • 4
  • Stefano Mariani
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.MarBEE, UCD School of Biology & Environmental ScienceUniversity College DublinDublin 4Ireland
  2. 2.FRS Marine LaboratoryAberdeenUK
  3. 3.Commercial Fisheries Research Group, Department of Life SciencesGalway Mayo Institute of TechnologyGalwayIreland
  4. 4.National Oceanography Centre, SouthamptonUniversity of Southampton Waterfront CampusSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations