Threatened fishes of the world: Luciobarbus subquincunciatus (Günther, 1868) (Cyprinidae)
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Common name: abou khazzama, a’djzan, nabish (Arabic), solimani, sos mahi (Farsi), bıyıklı balık, komando balığı, benekli barbus (Turkish); leopard barbel, spot barb, Mesopotamian barbel (E). Conservation status: Extirpated in the southern marshes of Iraq (Italy–Iraq 2006); almost disappeared in Syria (FAO 2007); Open image in new windowrare in Turkish Tigris (Ünlü 2006); occasional in commercial catches in Iran, only six fish caught in 1990s, “critically endangered” (M. Ramin, personal communication 2000). Identification: Originally described in Barbus. Uniquely characterised by the quincunx-like pattern of spots. Branched dorsal fin rays 8, branched anal fin rays 5, lateral line scales 75–88. Inner pharyngeal teeth molariform, formula 2,3,3-3,3,2. Maximum length 60 cm. Illustration by Susan Laurie-Bourque. Distribution: Found in the Tigris-Euphrates basin of Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. Habitat and ecology: Favours lentic, high oxygen habitats but may occur in reservoirs. Molluscivore based on teeth but also takes algae and detritus. Reproduction: Spawns in shallow gravel beds in April–May in Turkish Tigris River (Ünlü 2006). Threats: Use as food, habitat loss, eutrophication, dam construction and water abstraction. Conservation actions: Adults so rare in Iran aquaculture not feasible and fish released. Conservation recommendations: Surveys to determine spawning sites for protection.