Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 73, Issue 4, pp 445–451

Identifying spawning behavior in Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis, using electronic tags

  • Andrew C. Seitz
  • Brenda L. Norcross
  • Derek Wilson
  • Jennifer L. Nielsen
Article

Synopsis

Identifying spawning behavior in Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis, is particularly challenging because they occupy a deep, remote environment during the spawning season. To identify spawning events, a method is needed in which direct observation by humans is not employed. Spawning behavior of seven other flatfish, species has been directly observed in their natural environment by investigators using SCUBA. All of these flatfish species display almost identical spawning behavior that follows a routine. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that this spawning behavior occurs in other flatfish species, including Pacific halibut. As part of a larger study, we recaptured two Pacific halibut on which Pop-up Archival Transmitting (PAT) tags had been attached during the winter spawning season. Because the tags were physically retrieved, we were able to collect minute-by-minute depth records for 135 and 155 days. We used these depth data to tentatively identify spawning events. On seven separate occasions between 20 January 2001 and 9 February 2001, one fish displayed a conspicuous routine only seen during the spawning season of Pacific halibut and the routine parallels the actions of other spawning flatfish directly observed by humans using SCUBA. Therefore, we propose this routine represents spawning behavior in Pacific halibut. The second tagged fish did not display the conspicuous routine, thus challenging the assumption that Pacific halibut are annual spawners. PAT tags may prove to be a useful tool for identifying spawning events of Pacific halibut, and that knowledge may be used for improved management in the future.

Keywords

PSAT tag PAT tag archival tag Pleuronectidae 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnold, G.P., Dewar, H. 2001

    Electronic tags in marine fisheries research: a 30-year perspective

    Sibert, J.Nielsen, J.L. eds. Electronic Tagging and Tracking in Marine FisheriesKluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht, The Netherlands764
    Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, K.M., Picquelle, S.J. 2002Larval distribution of offshore spawning flatfish in the Gulf of Alaska: potential transport pathways and enhanced onshore transport during ENSO eventsMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.236205217Google Scholar
  3. Bell F.H. 1981. The Pacific halibut, the resource, and the fishery. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, . 267 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Block, B.A., Dewar, H., Blackwell, S.B., Williams, T.D., Prince,  E.D., Farwell, C.J., Boustany, A., Teo, S.L.H., Seitz, A., Walli, A., Fudge, D. 2001Migratory movements, depth preferences and thermal biology of Atlantic bluefin tunaScience29313101314Google Scholar
  5. Carvalho, N., Afonso, P., Santos,  2003The haremic mating system and mate choice in the wide-eyed flounder, Bothus poda. Environ. Biol. Fish.66249258Google Scholar
  6. Clark, W.G., Hare, S.R., Parma, A.M., Sullivan, P.J., Trumble,  R.J. 1999Decadal changes in growth and recruitment of Pacific halibut (Hipposlossus stenolepis)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.56242252Google Scholar
  7. Hooge, P.N., Taggart, S.J. 1993Home range and movement patterns of Pacific halibut (Hipposlossus stenolepis): There’s no place like homeAm. Zool.33128AGoogle Scholar
  8. Finn, R.N., Østby, G.C, Norberg, B., Fyhn, H.J. 2002In vivo oocyte hydration in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), proteolytic liberation of free amino acids, and ion transport, are driving forces for osmotic water influxJ. Exp. Biol.205211224Google Scholar
  9. International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC). 1998. The Pacific Halibut: biology, fishery and management. IPHC Technical Report 40. 63 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Konstantinou, H., Shen, D.C. 1995The social and reproductive behavior of the eyed flounder, Bothus ocellatus, with notes on the spawning of Bothus lunatus and Bothus ellipticusEnviron. Biol. Fish.44311324Google Scholar
  11. Manabe, H., Miyuki, I., Shinomiya, A. 2000Mating system of the lefteye flounder, Engyprosopon grandisquamaIchthyol. Res.476974Google Scholar
  12. Manabe, H., Shinomiya, A. 2001Two spawning seasons and mating system of the bastard halibut, TarphopsoligolepisIchthyol. Res.48421424Google Scholar
  13. Moyer, J.T., Yogo, Y., Zaiser, M.J., Tsukahara,  1985Spawning behavior and social organization of the flounder Crossorhombus kobensis (Bothidae) at Miyake-jima, JapanJap. J. Ichthyol.32363367Google Scholar
  14. Novikov, N.P. 1964

    Basic elements of biology of the Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt) in the Bering Sea

    Moiseev, P.A. eds. Soviet Fisheries Investigations in the Northeastern Pacific, Part V.U.S. Department of Commerce/NTISWashington DC, USA175219
    Google Scholar
  15. Seitz, A.C., Wilson, D., Norcross, B.L., Nielsen, J.L. 2003Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags: a method to investigate the migration and behavior of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis in the Gulf of AlaskaAlaska Fish. Res. Bull.10124136Google Scholar
  16. St-Pierre, G. 1984Spawning location and season for Pacific halibutIPHC Sci. Rep.7046Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew C. Seitz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Brenda L. Norcross
    • 1
  • Derek Wilson
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jennifer L. Nielsen
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Marine ScienceUniversity of Alaska Fairbanks FairbanksU.S.A.
  2. 2.US. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center - Biological Science OfficeAnchorageU.S.A.
  3. 3.Oregon Department of Fish and WildlifeNewportU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations