Renewable Energy Policies and Technological Innovation: Evidence Based on Patent Counts
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- Johnstone, N., Haščič, I. & Popp, D. Environ Resource Econ (2010) 45: 133. doi:10.1007/s10640-009-9309-1
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This paper examines the effect of environmental policies on technological innovation in the specific case of renewable energy. The analysis is conducted using patent data on a panel of 25 countries over the period 1978–2003. We find that public policy plays a significant role in determining patent applications. Different types of policy instruments are effective for different renewable energy sources. Broad-based policies, such as tradable energy certificates, are more likely to induce innovation on technologies that are close to competitive with fossil fuels. More targeted subsidies, such as feed-in tariffs, are needed to induce innovation on more costly energy technologies, such as solar power.