Does “No” mean “No”? A protest methodology
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In this paper, we propose a method of identifying and truncating protesters in Contingent Valuation surveys. We propose using a system of Willingness to Pay (WTP) questions that value multiple goods and that use both discrete choice and open-ended questions coupled with multiple questions about protest beliefs administered to the entire sample. Protesters can then be identified because they reject all bids, declare zero on all open-ended questions, and hold protest beliefs. The proposed procedure has been empirically tested on an air pollution data set from Poland, where 27 of the sample was identified as protesters. The adjustment for protesters increased the estimated WTP values by a factor of more than 3.
KeywordsAir quality Contingent Valuation Embedding Protest voters Sequencing
Contingent valuation methods
Willingness to pay
We would like to acknowledge the helpful comments of Tomasz Zylicz, Bengt Kristrom, Alan Randall, Michale Hanemann, J. Preston Parry, and Olvar Bergland. We also thank Heinz Family Foundation, Institute for the Study of World Politics and Henry Hart Rice Research Fellowship for funding this project, although all views are the authors’ alone.
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