Environmental and Resource Economics

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 71–87 | Cite as

Does “No” mean “No”? A protest methodology



In this paper, we propose a method of identifying and truncating protesters in Contingent Valuation surveys. We propose using a system of Willingness to Pay (WTP) questions that value multiple goods and that use both discrete choice and open-ended questions coupled with multiple questions about protest beliefs administered to the entire sample. Protesters can then be identified because they reject all bids, declare zero on all open-ended questions, and hold protest beliefs. The proposed procedure has been empirically tested on an air pollution data set from Poland, where 27 of the sample was identified as protesters. The adjustment for protesters increased the estimated WTP values by a factor of more than 3.


Air quality Contingent Valuation Embedding Protest voters Sequencing 



Compensated variation


Contingent valuation methods


Dichotomous choice




Willingness to pay



We would like to acknowledge the helpful comments of Tomasz Zylicz, Bengt Kristrom, Alan Randall, Michale Hanemann, J. Preston Parry, and Olvar Bergland. We also thank Heinz Family Foundation, Institute for the Study of World Politics and Henry Hart Rice Research Fellowship for funding this project, although all views are the authors’ alone.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominika A. Dziegielewska
    • 1
    • 3
  • Robert Mendelsohn
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Energy and Environmental StudiesBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Yale School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.LouisvilleUSA

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